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stats4 - Wednesday September 8 POLS4150 RESEARCH METHODS IN...

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Wednesday, September 8 http://emwilk.myweb.uga.edu/POLS4150.html Course Webpage: POLS4150 – RESEARCH METHODS IN POLITICAL SCIENCE (90595) Causation Qualitative vs. quantitative research Case selection Necessary & sufficient conditions
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Types of Causality X Y Z A B 1. Multiple Causes of Y. Occurrence of Y is dependent upon many variables. Y doesn’t occur unless X, Z, A, and B all occur
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2. Time Dependency . X associated with Y in some periods but not others. X Y Period 1 Period 2 X Y No relationship Types of Causality
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3. Same Cause, different Outcome . An increase in x (social protest) causes an outcome y (government turn over) in some cases but an entirely different outcome z (repression) in other cases. X Y Democracies Types of Causality X Z Autocracies
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4. Complex Causality . Y depends on many variables, some of which, may be jointly dependent on each other PCT of the Vote Party District Partisanship Challenger spending Presidential Approval Predicting Individual Incumbent House Races Types of Causality
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Types of Causality 5. Circular Causality X causes, and is caused by Y X Y Incumbent spending (X) Expected vote share (Y) (--) (--) Incumbent vulnerability (Z) (--) (+)
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King, Keohane, & Verba Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Quantitative Quantify variables Large n (number of observations) Generalizability Strong external validity Sample is chosen randomly External Validity – How confident are we when generalizing to other cases
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King, Keohane, & Verba Qualitative Thick description of variables small n Strong internal validity Careful selection of observations Select cases according to values of IVAR Avoid selecting cases according to values of DVAR Internal Validity – How well a research design tests a causal relationship Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Weak external validity
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