fall 2007-lecture 5

fall 2007-lecture 5 - Sample Exam Question A 52 year old...

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Unformatted text preview: Sample Exam Question A 52 year old female wishes to start an exercise program. She has been relatively sedentary for the last 5 years. Her mother died of a heart attack last year at the age of 75. She is a non­smoker and during her physical exam in January, her BMI was 28 kgm­2, blood pressure was 150/80 and her blood contained the following levels of LDL, HDL, and glucose respectively: 120 mg/dL, 40 mg/dL, and 95 mg/dL. A) A) A) According to ACSM guidelines, is this woman at risk of CVD? If so, how many risk factors does she have? Would you recommend that she obtain medical clearance before starting a program? Why or Why not? Does a physician need to be present during a submax exercise test? Body Composition Assessment Lecture #5 September 11, 2007 Body Composition Measurements – – – elemental, chemical, cellular, tissue system level Why?? How?? Direct/Invasive Indirect/Noninvasive Doubly Indirect/Noninvasive Which method? Possible Choices – – – – – – – – – Factors to consider: Hydrostatic Weighing Air Displacement Anthropometry Bioelectrical Impedance DEXA (Dual­energy x­ray absorptiometry) Purpose/Accuracy of technique Cost/Practicality Technician training Population Hydrostatic Weighing AKA: Hydrodensitometry, The GOLD standard – Archimedes' Principle – Siri Equation: Measures ⇓ in body mass in H2O % BF = 495/Db – 450 Subject cooperation/comfort in H2O Residual lung volume Intestinal gas (0.1 L) – Factors to consider: – = 0.24/0.28 X FVC Air Displacement AKA: air displacement plethysmography Bod Pod Measures body volume ⇒ body density & fat – similar to hydrostatic weighing values easier subject cooperation Factors to consider: – cost and availability accuracy undetermined (± 2.2%?) Skinfold ± 3­4% accurate – quick and inexpensive – Factors to consider: Theory: subcutaneous fat proportional to total body fat Blood Flow technician training Circumference – – – – Circumference/Girth Three sites Waist Circumference Waist : Hip ratio ~4% accurate – Factors to consider: quick and inexpensive Genetics Body Shape ⇑ circumference or ratio ⇒ ⇑ BF% ⇑ disease risk? Body Mass Index – – – – BMI Weight : Height ratio (kg/m2) Obesity Indicator quick and inexpensive Factors to consider: Combine with waist circumference to obtain accurate disease risk activity level Bioelectrical Impedance – FFM proportional to electrical conductivity ± 3­5 accurate – minimal technical training or subject cooperation required – Factors to consider Speed of electrical current between 2 reference points hydration status temperature diuretics DEXA – Based on 3 compartment model X­ray scan of segments or whole body Mineral stores, mineral­free FFM, FM – Safe, fast, and ± 1.8% accurate – Factors to consider: cost and accessibility technician training lack of standardization between manufacturers ...
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