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CH 9 - CH 9 Design of Permanent Joints This chapter...

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Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design, 8 th Ed. Class Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi CH 9 Page 1 of 6 CH 9: Design of Permanent Joints This chapter introduces permanent joining methods which include: welding, soldering, cementing, bonding, etc. Permanent joining usually leads to significant savings over non-permanent joining ( because of the elimination of fasteners and holes ). Welding Symbols Welding symbols are used on drawings to indicate the type and specifications of the weldments. Figure 9-1 shows the American Welding Society ( AWS ) standard welding symbol. The most important features of the welding symbol are illustrated below: The table below shows the Basic weld symbol for the different types of welds. Figures 9-3, 4, 5 show some examples for the use of welding symbols. In general there are two types of welds, butt welds and fillet welds. - Fillet welds are the most used type for machine elements. - Butt welds are usually used for pressure vessels.
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Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design, 8 th Ed. Class Notes by: Dr. Ala Hijazi CH 9 Page 2 of 6 Since welding is associated with a significant increase in temperature , there will be some metallurgical changes in the parent material in the vicinity of the weldments. head2right Thus, when checking for failure of the parent material in the vicinity of the weldments, it is recommended to use the properties of Hot-Rolled ( HR ) material even if the material is Cold-Drawn ( CD ). Also, residual stresses might be introduced during welding because of clamping or sometimes because of the order of welding. Butt and Fillet Welds For a Butt weld subjected to tensile force or shear force; square4 The normal stress is found as: ߪ ൌ ܨ ݄݈ Where ݄ : Throat of the weld ( Does not include the reinforcement ) ݈ : Length of the weld square4 The average shear stress is found as: ߬ ൌ ܨ ݄݈ head2right The reinforcement produces a stress concentration , and therefore it should be removed by grinding or machining if the joint is subjected to fatigue loading.
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