Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Atoms Molecules and Ions The early history of Chemistry First quantitative experiments that led to important chemical laws by

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules and Ions 2.1 The early history of Chemistry: First quantitative experiments that led to important chemical laws by: Albert Boyle (1627-1691) Antoin Lavoisier (1743-1794) 2.2 Fundamental Chemical Laws: Law of Conservation of Mass : “Mass is neither created nor destroyed” Law of Definite Proportion : “A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass”
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Law of Multiple Proportions : “When two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with 1 gram of the first element can always be reduced to small whole numbers” Example 2.1 : For several compounds of nitrogen and oxygen: Compound Mass of nitrogen that combines with 1 g of oxygen A 1.750 g B 0.8750 g C 0.4375 g A/B = 1.750/0.875 = 2/1 B/C = 0.875/0.4375 = 2/1 A/C = 1.750/0.4375 = 4/1 2
Background image of page 2
Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808) : Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms The atoms of a given element are identical A given compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atoms Chemical reaction is reorganization of atoms However, Dalton provided no correct formulas of certain compounds: e.g: for water H : O ratio is 1: 8 and formula is H x O y (H 2 O) Experimental work of measuring the volumes of gases by Gay-Lussac (1778-1850) and the hypothesis of Avogadro (1776-1856) provided the key to determining absolute formulas of compounds Avogadro’s hypothesis (1811) : Avogadro explained the results of Gay-Lussac’s experiments and proposed that: “ At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of gases contain the same number of particles ”. 3
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 10/25/2010 for the course CHEMISTRY 2010 taught by Professor Thwapiah during the Fall '10 term at Hashemite University.

Page1 / 13

Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Atoms Molecules and Ions The early history of Chemistry First quantitative experiments that led to important chemical laws by

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online