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CHAPTER 9 - Chapter 9 Covalent Bonding Orbitals Bonding is...

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Chapter 9 Covalent Bonding : Orbitals Bonding is orbitals overlap (combination) to form chemical bonds 9.1 Hybridization: sp 3 Hybridization : e. g : Methane CH 4 , ammonia NH 3 and water H 2 O e. g : Methane CH 4 : 6 C: 1s 2 2s 1 2p 3 1H: 1s 1 Four bonds for carbon in methane required hybridization between one 2s and three 2p orbitals to form four identical sp3 hybridized orbitals One-type of bonding : σ -bonding that is a direct and maximum overlap between sp3 (carbon) + 1s (hydrogen) orbitals: 1s σ -bond sp3 In methane the four identical σ -bonds are arranged in tetrahedral arrangement with an angle of 109.5 o between each two sp 3 orbitals: C H H H H 109.5 o
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sp 2 hybridization : e. g : Ethylene CH 2 =CH 2 Three bonds for each carbon in ethylene required hybridization between one 2s and two 2p orbitals to form three identical sp 2 hybridized orbitals with one pure p orbitals un-hybridized orbital: sp 2 C sp 2 sp 2 P Two types of bonding : 1. σ -bonding (direct orbital overlap) : a. sp 2 + sp 2 (carbon) b. sp 2 (carbon) + 1s (hydrogen) 2 . π –bonding (indirect orbital overlap) between pure p orbitals of each carbon: In general π bonding (indirect overlap) is weaker than σ - bonding (direct overlap) In ethylene the three identical σ -bonds are arranged in trigonal planar arrangement with an angle of 120 o between each two sp 2 orbitals: C C H H H H 120 o Note that double bond is σ + π bonds 2
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sp hybridization : e. g : Acetylene CH CH, carbon dioxide CO 2 (O=C=O) N 2 (N N) and carbon monoxide CO (C O) Two
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