CHAPTER 10 - CHAPTER 10 LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS 10.1...

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CHAPTER 10 LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS 10.1 Intermolecular Forces We discussed in chapters 8 and 9 that atoms can form stable units called molecules by sharing electrons ( i.e . intrarmolecular bonding) In this chapter we consider the properties of condensed states of matter ( liquids and solids ) and intermolecular forces between molecules in liquid and solid states. Dipole-Dipole Forces : It is electrostatic attractions between charged ends of molecules with dipole moments ( e.g : hydrogen bonding in water) Dipole-dipole forces are only about 1% as strong as covalent or ionic bonds. Hydrogen bonding has a very important effect on physical properties ( e.g : boiling points). Two factors influence strength of hydrogen bonding : 1. Electronegativity values 2. Size of the elements
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Londen Dispersion Forces : They exist among noble gas atoms and non-polar molecules. As the electrons move about the nucleus non- symmetrical electron distribution can develop that produces a temporary dipolar arrangement of charge. This interatomic attraction is very weak and short-lived . However, these interactions become strong enough to produce liquid ( e.g : liquid nitrogen at -196 o C) and solid ( e.g : Solid CO 2 at -76 o C). Palarizability : It is a term that indicates the change in the distortion of the electron cloud, which gives the dipolar charge distribution . Increasing the size (i.e. the number of electrons), increases the polarizability and hence increases the possibility of the temporarily dipole-interactions . 2
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10.2 The liquid state : Many of the properties of liquids give us direct information about the forces that exist among the particles: 1. Surface tension : It is the resistance of a liquid to an increase in its surface area. Liquids with relatively large inter-molecular forces tend to have relatively high surface tensions. 2 . Capillary action : It is the spontaneous rising of a liquid in a narrow tube (capillary). The forces : 1) Intermolecular forces among molecules of the liquid. 2) Adhesive forces between liquid molecules and their container (glass is made from silicon oxides). 3. Viscosity : It is a measure of the liquid resistance to flow. Molecules with large intermolecular forces tend to be highly viscous ( e.g : glycerol ). 3
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10.3 An Introduction to Structures and Types of Solids: Two main types of solids : 1) Crystalline solids : They are highly ordered in their structures. 2) Amorphous solids : They are highly disordered in their structures. Lattice
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CHAPTER 10 - CHAPTER 10 LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS 10.1...

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