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Unformatted text preview: 1. The endocrine and nervous systems communicate with each other through the
A) anterior pituitary
B) posterior pituitary
C) spinal cord
Q}. cerebral cortex
<IDJ hypothalamus _ .I
2. The adrenal gland is located
A) on the inferior pole of the kidney
B) where the renal artery enters the kidney
on the superior pole of the kidney
D) in the renal medulla
E) in the renal cortex © 3. Receptors for water soluble hormones are located on:
@ the cell membrane
B) the Golgi apparatus
C) the nuclear membrane
D) the mitochondria
E) the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
4. Tropic hormones:
A) are produced by the cerebral cortex
B) are produced by the anterior pituitary gland
C) are produced by theposterior pituitary gland
J2lare produced by the hypothalamus
<IDJ B andD
5. In negative feedback control the
D) set point
C) 9.2. @2J detects a change in the environment. extracellular fluid compartment includes:
intracellular fluid, blood plasma, interstitial fluid
blood plasma, intracellular fluid
interstitial fluid only
intracellular fluid, interstitial fluid
interstitial fluid, blood plasma Page 1 7. The purpose of myelin is to
A) increase the velocity of action potentials
B) reduce the energy requirements to run Na+-K+ pumps
9.. protect the axon from toxins
E) B andC
8. A target tissue in the endocrine system is defmed as:
A) the tissue with the greatest amount ofhonnone flowing through it at anyone time
B) the tissue closest to the endocrine gland producing the honnone
C) the tissue furthest away from the endocrine gland producing the honnone
D), the tissue with the highest volume of blood flowing through it
C§.lJ the tissue containing specific receptors for the honnone
9. Diffusional equilibrium occurs when:
A) the area ofthe exchange surface becomes infintely large
the exchange surface becomes in.fintely thick
C) concentration gradient goes to zero
) influx exceeds efflux
E) efflux exceeds influx ~ 10. Which of the following IS NOT a type of epithelial cell?
A) squamous cells in the lung
B) cuboidal cell in the liver
red blood cells
D) stratified squamous cells in the esophagus
E) columitar cells in the intestine © II. Which of the following glands of the endocrine system is composed of nerve tissue?
A) the anterior pituitary
B) the testis
C) the thyroid
the adrenal medulla
E) the pancreas ® 12. The action potential
A) begins with the membrane's increased penneability to potassium.
B) returns to resting when the sodium channels open.
C) can be triggered in very rapid succession, with no delay.
(l5) involves voltage-gated channels in the membrane.
tr) propagates only because chloride ions move through the membrane. Page 2 T he next 4 questions pertain to the following diagram.Two aqueous compartments are separated·
by a semi-permeable membrane. Compartment A contains a I M solution of sucrose and
compartment B contains a 0.5 M solution of sucrose. The volumes of the two compartments are
equal. Osmosis occurs.
("" semipnmeable membrane
AAAAA1AAAAA • •• I· • 1 M sucrose I 0.5 M
• • • • : sucrose
• I ••
13. The semi-permeable membrane is impermeable to sucrose.
B) False 0J> 14. During osmosis the concentration of sucrose in compartment B (on the right) increases.
15. At equilibrium the concentration of sucrose in compartment A is 0.50 M.
16. At equilibrium there is no flow of water.
17. Endocrine glands are:
A) richly vascularized
C) secrete hormones in low concentrations
E) Band Conly
18. Which cell type lines body cavities?
A) glial cells
<B) epithelial cells
C) bone cells
D) fat cells Page 3 19. For cells in which carbon dioxide crosses the plasma membrane by simple diffusion,
what determines the rate at which carbon dioxide enters the cell?
@) the concentration of carbon dioxide on each side of the membrane
B) the amount of ATP produced by the cell
C) the number of carrier proteins in the membrane
D) the amount of energy available
E) the concentration of hydrogen ions on each side of the membrane
20. Which of the following IS NOT a connective tissue:
21. Fick's Law predicts:
A) decrease in net flux with decreasing thickness of the exchange surface
B) a net flux when the concentration gradient is zero
© increase in net flux with decreasing thickness of the exchange surface
D) no movement of solute molecules when concentration gradient is zero
E) an increasing concentration gradient with increasing exchange surface thickness
22. The sympathetic nervous system:
A) is part of the voluntary nervous system
B) relays information from the body to the brain
C) is part of the afferent nervous system
is part of the autonomic nervous system
E) typically promotes non-emergency functions and energy conservation ® 23. Hormones move from the blood plasma into the interstitial fluid compartment by A)
E) active transport
facilitated diffusion Page 4 24. If the thickness of an exchange surface is doubled the resulting flow of solute molecules
across the exchange surface will
@)) be reduced by half
C) remain the same
D) equilibrium will be reached immediately
E) solute flow will reverse
25. 1J?erson with consistently high blood sugar produces
QJ.> too little insulin
B) too much insulin
C) too little glucagon
D) too much calcitonin
E) too little parathormone
26. In general, homeostasis refers to the tendency to keep the body systems (e.g. circulatory
and digestive systems)
A) matched to the external environment.
B) the same relative to one another.
<;l~ under the control 0, f the brain.
(b}' at a steady state over time.
E) at the same specific temperature.
27. Multiple sclerosis is a
A) digestive disorder
@ demyelination disease
C) disease related to diabetes
D) form of cancer
28. Neurotransmitters are packaged in vessicles located in the:
A) axon hillock
~ the pre-synaptic axon terminus
D) the post-synaptic neuron cell body
E) glial cells Page 5 29. Which ofthe following processes requires energy?
B) facilitated diffusion
@ maintaining a steady state condition
D) maintaining an equilibrium condition
30. Action potentials are generated in the dendrites of neurons.
31. Active transport usually moves molecules
A) in the same direction in which diffusion moves them.
<!D) in the opposite direction from the one in which diffusion moves them.
e) in a direction that tends to bring about equilibrium.
D) toward higher pH.
E) toward lower pH
32. Receptor activation is
A) the event that terminates hormone action on the target cell
B) secretion of the hormone from the endocrine gland
© a conformational change in a hormone receptor
D) uptake of the hormone by the target cell
33. The flight-or-fight response is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system.
34. Action potentials move in one direction because
A) K+ chamtels are always open
B) Na+ channels always leak
C) K+ channels are inactivated as the action potential propagates
D) Ci- channels are inactivated behind the action potential
®' Na+ channels are inactivated behind the action potential Page 6 35. After the action potential nerve membrane repolarization is due to:
closure ofNa+ ion channels and delayed opening ofK+ ion channels
B) closure ofK+ ion channels and delayed opening ofNa+ ion channels
C) closure ofNa+ ion channels and delayed opening of Ca++ ion channels
D) closure ofK+ ion channels and delayed opening ofCa++ ion channels
E) closure ofCa++ ion channels and delayed opening ofK+ ion channels ® 36. Which of the following IS NOT a general tissue type found in humans:
A) connective tissue
B) epithelial tissue
C) muscle tissue
D) nervous tissue
@ sensory tissue
37. The parathyroid glands are involved in regulating blood levels of
E) thyroxine. ® 38. The nodes of Ranvier contain very few Na+ channels.
False ® 39. Nerve cells communicate with other nerve cells by means of
A) electric signals that pass across synapses.
@» chemical signals that pass across synapses.
C) bursts of pressure that "bump" the postsynaptic cell membrane.
D) Na+ ions as they are released from one cell and enter the next.
E) K+ ions as they are released from one cell and enter the next
40. Anti-diuretic hormone (vasopressin) and oxytocin are produced by the
A) anterior pituitary
C) posterior pituitary
@ hypothalamus Page 7 41. Which ofthe following is a steroid hormone?
42. Steroid hormones such as estrogen act on target cells by
A) initiating second messenger activity
B) binding to cell membrane proteins
C) binding to cell membrane lipids
D) activating enzymes
activating DNA transcription factors ® 43. Which of the following is an example of positive feedback?
A) secretion of insulin when blood sugar is too high
B) secretion of glucagon when blood glucose is too low
Cl. secertion of insulin when blood sugar is too low
®> secretion of oxytocin during labor
44. Which type of tissue secretes digestive enzymes?
45. The thyroid gland is located
A) next to the anterior pituitary
B) next to the hypothalamus opposite the pituitary
in the neck
D) in the chest
E) next to the pancreas <9> 46. In a regulatory system (e.g. a negative feedback loop), feedforward information is used
A) increase response time of the regulatory system
B) switch from a negative to positive feedback loop
C) increase the size of the output
increase the size of the input
change the set point @> Page 8 The next 4 questions pertain to the following figure of a nerve action potential. 47. The depolarization phase is due to the closing of K+ channels.
48. The small dip following repolarization is called hyperpolarization and is due to open K+
49. The -70 mV resting-potential is established by the [Na+] gradient across the cell
False ® 50. The negative resting potential means the interior of the cell has a net negative charge
and the exterior of the cell has a net positive charge.
B) False I
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This note was uploaded on 10/25/2010 for the course BIO 188 taught by Professor Capco during the Spring '08 term at ASU.
- Spring '08