BIO 188 Study Guide Cadiovascular Physiology

BIO 188 Study Guide Cadiovascular Physiology - BIO 188...

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BIO 188 Study Guide #15 CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY Study Questions 1. Trace blood flow in order through the major vessels and circuits. For each vessel or heart chamber, indicate whether the level of oxygenation is relatively high or low. LOW O2 RA RV pulmonary LA LV aortic valve HIGH O2 2. What are the phases of the cardiac cycle and what happens during each? Describe the muscular, valve, fluid, and electrical activity associated with each. Diastole and Systole. Diastole is when ventricles relax and atria contract, blood flows from atria to ventricles, mitral and tricuspid valves open, aortic and pulmonic valves closed. Systole is when ventricles contract and the atria relax, blood then flows out of heart into pulmonary artery and aorta, mitral and tricuspid valves close, aortic and pulmonic valves open. 3. Given EDV, ESV, and HR, how do you calculate SV, CO, and EF? What are normal resting values for SV, CO, and EF? On average, how often does an RBC pass through the heart? CO = SV x HR. SV=EDV-ESV. EF=SV/EDV. Normal SV=70mL/beat. CO resting is 5.04L/min. EF resting is 0.6. Every minute. 4. Starting with the outermost, name the three types of “—cardium” and the function of each. Pericardium – protects heart, Myocardium – muscle responsible for pumping blood, Endocardium – lining of heart chamber that minimizes heart turbulance 5. What is the cause of the twisting or torque motion of the heart as it contracts? Because the right side of the heart is bigger than the left 6. During one minute, approximately how much time is spent in diastole and how much is spent in systole? Twice as much time in diastole as in systole 7. Compare and contrast atrial and ventricular contraction in terms of strength, length, timing, valve activity, and maximum blood pressure. Atria contract for longer than ventricle. Mitral and tricuspid valves are open longer than the aortic and pulmonic valves. Ventricle contraction stronger than atria. The more the ventricle is contracted, the higher the blood pressure 8. How would a massive drop in blood volume affect CO? Why would tachycardia be expected as a result? CO would drop dramatically causing heart rate to increase to make up for it for the lower volume as to keep CO the same 9. What factors affect SV? preload, strength of contraction (decreases ESV) and afterload. 10. What factors can influence HR? What hormones, if any, regulate these factors? Automatic nervous system (blood pressure, blood composition). Epinephrine. 11. What is the sequence of events in the conducting system (nervous tissue) of the heart through one cardiac cycle? Correlate these events with the signals on an EKG.
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P Wave (Systole) occurs right before the QRS complex (depolarization), then diastole (hyperpolarization) occurs bringing down the QRS complex, followed by T wave (repolarization) through the mitral valve opening *12. Compare abnormal EKGs with normal EKGs and explain how the diagnoses given in class account for the observed irregularities. Why is rapid conduction of
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BIO 188 Study Guide Cadiovascular Physiology - BIO 188...

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