Lecture Slides-Respiratory System

Lecture Slides-Respiratory System - Theme: Cell, Tissue and...

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Theme: Cell, Tissue and Organ Functions are Regulated by Control Systems through Negative and Positive Feedback Mechanisms Concept A: Maintenance of a constant internal environment (homeostasis) is necessary for the optimal functioning of physiological processes and requires energy-dependent steady state conditions. Concept B: Feedback mechanisms allow organisms to self-regulate and maintain homeostasis. Concept C: Negative feedback loops are stabilized when input response times are faster than output response times.
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Theme: Life is Characterized by a High Level of Order and Complexity Concept A: Biological order and complexity is instructed; they are derived from the information content of DNA Concept B: Biological systems exhibit emergent properties
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Theme: Biological Structure and Function are Coupled Concept A: Structure optimizes physiological processes. Concept B: Specialized structures (e.g., eye, voice box) support specialized functions Concept C: Diseases are aberrations of normal structure and/or function
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Functions of the Lungs The lung is the site of gas exchange O 2 is absorbed into the blood via lungs CO 2 is exchanged and exhaled Most cells require a constant supply of O 2 and continuous removal of CO 2 . Respiratory gas exchange occurs by diffusion in alveoli
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Functions of the Lungs High metabolic rates require high respiratory gas diffusion rates. Diffusion rates in the lung are maximized by: ± increased surface areas for gas exchange ± maximizing partial pressure gradients across surfaces ± Minimizing exchange surface thickness
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Functions of the Lungs Lungs contain several hundred million alveoli Total exchange surface is 50-200 m 2 Normal tidal volume is 5-10 l/min (highly dependent on activity, body size) Normal breathing rate is 10-15 breaths/min (highly dependent on activity, body size)
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Lecture Slides-Respiratory System - Theme: Cell, Tissue and...

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