bio188_final exam

bio188_final exam - Sheet1 How do neurons communicate with...

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Unformatted text preview: Sheet1 How do neurons communicate with other cells?,"Synapses- Chemical and Electrical. chem- chem messages from a presynap Chemical Synapse process,"Motor neurons and skeletal muscle cells connected at neuromuscular junctions. Enzymes to mak Action potentials,"AP arrives at axon terminal and causes opening of voltage gated Ca channels in presynaptic membrane so More about AcH,"If&nbsp Synaptic Potentials,"Neuron-Nuron can have inhibitory synapses. If response to NT is depolarization-excitatory. If hyperpolari Neuromuscular Junction,"synapse of axon terminal with motor end plate" Na and K gates,"If Na gates open, membrane depolarized and results in EPSP. If K+ gates open, membrane becomes hyperp What happens to neurotransmitter after it binds to postsynaptic membrane?,"Broken down by enzymes&nbsp Open Circulatory Systems?,"Extracellular fluid squeezes through intercellular spaces as the anima avantages of closed circulatory systems?,"1) -fluid moves more rapidly through vessels than intracellular spaces, so transport Blood Pressure,"pressure of circulating blood against walls of blood vessels.&nbsp pulmonary and systemic circuits,"pulmonary-deoxygenated blood from capillary beds to lungs- systemic- oxygenated blood ca pulmonary and systemic circuits of reptiles,"when not breathing, can bypass pulmonary. when breathing,, resistance in pulmo what keeps valves closed,"aortic and pulmonary valves closed during diastole because p vessels &gt 1 advantage of dual circulation in frogs and reptiles,"blood destined for tissues can sidestep high flow resistance of gas excha most h20 found,"in intracellular fluid" what color is deoxygenated blood,"darker red" what is the cardiac cycle,"the contraction of the two atria followed by contraction&nbsp how much blood pumped with single contraction of ventricle,"70 ml" heart nourished ,"capillaries that branch from coronary arteries. can without if if has fuel, 02, and good buffer with ions" pacemaker cells,"have rhythm, work is electrical, initiate AP's , APS depolarize contractile cells make them contract" CO,"lume of blood pumped by l or r ventricle/minute. Stroke Volume x Heart Rate. (SV= volume of blood pumped per beat)" How does sympathetic NS ? heart rate?,"? Sympathetic fibers release NE at SA node ? ..binds to adrenergic receptors on membranes of SA node cells" 4 basic gas exchange systems,"external gills internal gills lungs tracheae" FFiillll ggiillllss.. HHooww aarree tthheeyy ssppeecciiaalliizzeedd ffoorr jjoobb?,"Coonnssttaanntt,, uunniiddiirreeccttiioonnaall Page 1 Sheet1 neurons communicate with other cells?,"Synapses- Chemical and Electrical. chem- chem messages from a presynaptic cell induce chang at axon terminal. Synaptic cleft is space between membranes.&nbsp otentials,"AP arrives at axon terminal and causes opening of voltage gated Ca channels in presynaptic membrane so calcium goes inside enoough ACh to depolarize motor end plate, activates Na channels causing firing of AP." Potentials,"Neuron-Nuron can have inhibitory synapses. If response to NT is depolarization-excitatory. If hyperpolarization- inhibitory. Su uscular Junction,"synapse of axon terminal with motor end plate" K gates,"If Na gates open, membrane depolarized and results in EPSP. If K+ gates open, membrane becomes hyperpolarized and produc in synaptic cleft.&nbsp moves . Contractions of heart propels extracellular fluid&nbsp es of closed circulatory systems?,"1) -fluid moves more rapidly through vessels than intracellular spaces, so transports nutrients and waste systolic- while heart is beating. Diastolic - between heart beats" ry and systemic circuits,"pulmonary-deoxygenated blood from capillary beds to lungs- systemic- oxygenated blood carried to body tissues When animal not breathing, pulmonary constrict, and blood from right ventricle goes to right aorta" p ven. Open during systole ebcause p v &gt tage of dual circulation in frogs and reptiles,"blood destined for tissues can sidestep high flow resistance of gas exchange organ so it can m 0 found,"in intracellular fluid" lor is deoxygenated blood,"darker red" of two ventricles and then relaxation" ch blood pumped with single contraction of ventricle,"70 ml" urished ,"capillaries that branch from coronary arteries. can without if if has fuel, 02, and good buffer with ions" ker cells,"have rhythm, work is electrical, initiate AP's , APS depolarize contractile cells make them contract" e of blood pumped by l or r ventricle/minute. Stroke Volume x Heart Rate. (SV= volume of blood pumped per beat)" es sympathetic NS ? heart rate?,"? Sympathetic fibers release NE at SA node ds to adrenergic receptors on membranes of SA node cells" gas exchange systems,"external gills internal gills lungs tracheae" giillllss.. HHooww aarree tthheeyy ssppeecciiaalliizzeedd ffoorr jjoobb?,"Coonnssttaanntt,, uunniiddiirreeccttiioonnaall water flow ( vvee Page 2 Sheet1 from a presynaptic cell induce change in postsynaptic cell. electrical- AP spreads from presynaptic to postsynaptic cell" neurotransmitters diffuse across cleft.&nbsp ic membrane so calcium goes inside because its concentration is greater outside of cell this forces vesicles containing ACh to fuse with pre ry. If hyperpolarization- inhibitory. Summation of input happens in axon hillock. Single AP fired if threshold broken. Post synaptic potentials becomes hyperpolarized and produces IPSP" AcH- -&gt through vessels leading to different parts of the body. Fluid leaves vessels trickles through tissues and returns to heart" es, so transports nutrients and wastes to tissues more rapidly. 2) By changing resistance in the vessels, closed systems can be selective enated blood carried to body tissues" p vessels." ce of gas exchange organ so it can move directly to aorta and to body at a higher pressure" buffer with ions" ped per beat)" eeccttiioonnaall water flow ( vveennttiillaattiioonn ) maximizes PO 2 on external gill surfaces while ppeerrffuussiioonn (bloo Page 3 Sheet1 Motor end plate is the postsynaptic membrane. Ach receptors in folds of motor end plate. Voltage gated cation channels are to fuse with presynaptic membrane and contents in synaptic cleft." ptic potentials decrease as they spread froms ite of synapse. So synapses near axon hillock have most potential." acetylcholinesterase. Terminates constant receptor activation." n be selective in directing blood to certain tissues 3) Large molecules and cells that transport hormones and nutrients can eb contained in iioonn (blood flow) minimizes PO 2 on internal surfaces" Page 4 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/25/2010 for the course BIO 188 taught by Professor Capco during the Spring '08 term at ASU.

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