23 - Chapter Twenty three Futures and Forwards Chapter...

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Chapter Twenty three Futures and Forwards Chapter Outline Introduction Forward and Futures Contracts Spot Contracts Forward Contracts Futures Contracts Forward Contracts and Hedging Interest Rate Risk Hedging Interest Rate Risk with Futures Contracts Microhedging Macrohedging Routine Hedging versus Selective Hedging Macrohedging with Futures The Problem of Basis Risk Hedging Foreign Exchange Risk Forwards Futures Estimating the Hedge Ratio Hedging Credit Risk with Futures and Forwards Credit Forward Contracts and Credit Risk Hedging Futures Contracts and Catastrophe Risk Futures and Forward Policies of Regulators Summary 21
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Solutions for End-of-Chapter Questions and Problems: Chapter Twenty Four 1. What are derivative contracts? What is the value of derivative contracts to the managers of FIs? Which type of derivative contracts had the highest volume among all U.S. banks as of September 2003? Derivatives are financial assets whose value is determined by the value of some underlying asset. As such, derivative contracts are instruments that provide the opportunity to take some action at a later date based on an agreement to do so at the current time. Although the contracts differ, the price, timing, and extent of the later actions usually are agreed upon at the time the contracts are arranged. Normally the contracts depend on the activity of some underlying asset. The contracts have value to the managers of FIs because of their aid in managing the various types of risk prevalent in the institutions. As of September 2003 the largest category of derivatives in use by commercial banks was swaps, which was followed by options, and then by futures and forwards. 2. What has been the regulatory result of some of the misuses by FIs of derivative products? In many cases the accounting requirements for the use of derivative contracts have been tightened. Specifically, FASB now requires that all derivatives be marked to market and that all gains and losses immediately be identified on financial statements. 3. What are some of the major differences between futures and forward contracts? How do these contracts differ from a spot contract? A spot contract is an exchange of cash, or immediate payment, for financial assets, or any other type of assets, at the time the agreement to transact business is made, i.e., at time 0. Futures and forward contracts both are agreements between a buyer and a seller at time 0 to exchange the asset for cash (or some other type of payment) at a later time in the future. The specific grade and quantity of asset is identified, as is the specific price and time of transaction. One of the differences between futures and forward contracts is the uniqueness of forward contracts because they are negotiated between two parties. On the other hand, futures contracts are standardized because they are offered by and traded on an exchange. Futures contracts are marked to market daily by the exchange, and the exchange guarantees the performance of the
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23 - Chapter Twenty three Futures and Forwards Chapter...

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