ethics2 - PHIL 4: Introduction to Ethics Out of e crooked...

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A Brief Detour on Reasoning (cont’d from last time) Fa ! acies ( common mistakes of reasoning ) must be avoided to ensure validity But validity is not enough. As we’ve seen, to deliver a true conclusion, the premises of a valid argument must be tru e . 1 PHIL 4: Introduction to Ethics Out of t e crooked T mber of humani ± no s ² aight t ing was ever made .” Immanuel Kan ³
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( 1 ) All capybaras make good pets ( F ) ( 2 ) Curtis is a capybara ( T ) ( 3 ) Therefore, Curtis would make a good pet ( F ) 2
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A Brief Detour on Reasoning (cont’d) We call a valid argument with true premises sound If you admit that an argument is sound, you must accept the conclusion on pain of irrationality. 3
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Premise 1 : Murder is always impermissible. ( By def. of murder ) Premise 2 : Killing in self - defense is permissible. ( By moral intuition ) Sub - conclusion : Killing in self - defense is not murder. ( from P1, P2 and the law of non - contradiction ) Premise 3 : Abortion in the case of a pregnancy that threatens the life of the mother is killing in self - defense. ( DeFnition of self - defense ) Main conclusion : Aborting in cases of a pregnancy that threatens the life of the mother is not murder. ( ±rom sub - conclusion and P3 ) Example of a Rigorous Moral Philosophical Argument Putting It All Together 4
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Dialectic Argument/Objection Claim/Counter - example Refned Claim/Refned counter - example The Philosophical Method (cont’d) 5
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ethics2 - PHIL 4: Introduction to Ethics Out of e crooked...

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