4 - Chapter 2 - TC 9-524 Chapter 2 PROPERTIES,...

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TC 9-524 Chapter 2 PROPERTIES, IDENTIFICATION, AND HEAT TREATMENT OF METALS GENERAL PURPOSE This chapter contains basic information pertaining to properties and identification of metal and heat-treating procedures used for metals. For more specific information on metal and heat-treating techniques, refer to TM 43-0106. METAL CLASSIFICATION All metals may be classified as ferrous or nonferrous. A ferrous metal has iron as its main element. A metal is still considered ferrous even if it contains less than 50 percent iron, as long as it contains more iron than any other one metal. A metal is nonferrous if it contains less iron than any other metal. Ferrous Ferrous metals include cast iron, steel, and the various steel alloys, The only difference between iron and steel is the carbon content. Cast iron contains more than 2-percent carbon, while steel contains less than 2 percent. An alloy is a substance composed of two or more elements. Therefore, all steels are an alloy of iron and carbon, but the term “alloy steel” normally refers to a steel that also contains one or more other elements. For example, if the main alloying element is tungsten, the steel is a “tungsten steel” or “tungsten alloy.” If there is no alloying material, it is a “carbon steel.” Nonferrous Nonferrous metals include a great many metals that are used mainly for metal plating or as alloying elements, such as tin, zinc, silver, and gold. However, this chapter will focus only on the metals used in the manufacture of parts, such as aluminum, magnesium, titanium, nickel, copper, and tin alloys. 2-1
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TC 9-524 GENERAL PROPERTIES OF METALS The internal reactions of a metal known as mechanical properties. The to external forces are mechanical properties are directly related to each other. A change in one property usually causes a change in one or more additional properties. For example, if the hardness of a metal is increased, the brittleness usually increases and the toughness usually decreases. Following is a brief explanation of the mechanical properties and how they relate to each other. TENSILE STRENGTH Tensile strength is the ability of a metal to resist being pulled apart by opposing forces acting in a straight line (Figure 2-1). It is expressed as the number of pounds of force required to pull apart a bar of the material 1 inch wide and 1 inch thick. SHEAR STRENGTH Shear strength is the ability of a metal fractured by opposing forces not acting in to resist being a straight line (Figure 2-2). Shear strength can be controlled by varying the hardness of the metal. 2-2
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TC 9-524 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH Compressive strength is the ability of a metal to withstand pressures acting on a given plane (Figure 2-3).
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This note was uploaded on 10/26/2010 for the course ENGINEERIN MECH221 taught by Professor Wetton during the Spring '10 term at UBC.

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4 - Chapter 2 - TC 9-524 Chapter 2 PROPERTIES,...

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