Distillation Lab

Distillation Lab - Meghan Handley CHEM 2411 TA: Brandon...

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Meghan Handley CHEM 2411 TA: Brandon Wade TITLE: Separation of Mixtures by Fractional Distillation EXPERIMENT: September 9, 2010 LAB REPORT: September 16, 2010 PURPOSE: In this experiment, fractional distillation was performed to separate mixtures into their compounds by the process of vaporizing one of the components, condensing the vapor, and collecting the condensate. Simple distillation was also performed as a micro scale distillation. PROCEDURE: In part one of this experiment, a 12 milliliter mixture of ethanol and water was placed in a 25 milliliter round bottom flask with a boiling stone. A fractional distillation apparatus was constructed. After the round bottom flask was placed in the heating mantle, sand was added. The heating mantle was turned on high enough to bring the mixture to a boil as quickly as possible. Once the mixture started to boil, the heat was reduced until a ring of condensate rose through the column. One drop every one to four seconds was distilled once the process had started. The temperature was recorded as each 0.5 milliliters was collected. Once the temperature spiked and then plateaued, the heating mantle was turned off and the apparatus was taken apart and cleaned with acetone. In part two of the experiment, a 3 milliliter sample of an unknown liquid was put into a micro distilling flask with a boiling stone. A micro distillation apparatus was set up using the flask. The sample was heated gently with a heating mantle and sand until it started to boil. The liquid was distilled again so one drop was distilled every one to four seconds. The temperature was recorded as each 0.25 milliliters of liquid was collected. In part three of the experiment, an 8 milliliter sample of an unknown mixture was put into a 25 milliliter round bottom flask with a boiling stone. Another fractional distillation apparatus was constructed. The mixture was distilled the same as in part one of the experiment and the temperature was recorded as each 0.5 milliliter of liquid was distilled. The apparatus was again taken apart and cleaned with acetone. RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS: Part one of the experiment involved purifying ethanol from water. Ethanol was determined to have a boiling point of 79 degrees Celsius. Water was then determined to have a boiling point of 100 degrees Celsius. The original mixture of ethanol and water was determined to have 58.3% ethanol. This was found by dividing the volume of ethanol collected over the total volume of the original mixture. In part two of the experiment, an unknown liquid of one component was purified using simple distillation. During distillation, the boiling point of the unknown was determined to be 54 degrees Celsius. Using a table of possible unknowns and their boiling points, the unknown compound was determined to be acetone. Part three of the experiment involved another fractional distillation.
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Distillation Lab - Meghan Handley CHEM 2411 TA: Brandon...

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