October 19 lecture - October 19 2010 The Nature of the...

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October 19 2010 The Nature of the Gene, Alleles and Mutation Today’s questions: At the molecular level, what is a gene? An allele? A mutation? I. The molecular nature of the gene The current definition of the gene: What do we know about genes? 1. Genes are made of DNA 4 nucleotides/nitrogenous bases (A T G C) (a chromosome is one long DNA molecule, wrapped around proteins) 2. Sets of 3 bases in DNA can specify an amino acid-a building block of a protein 3. Genes include regions that code for RNA or protein products that function in the cell… 4. …as well as regulatory regions (involved in turning genes on, off, up, or down) The importance of regulatory sequences: 1. Muscle cells and nerve cells contain the same chromosomes. Why are the cells so different? -“muscle cell genes” get turned on only in muscle cells 2. Dr. Freeman has the genes required to make a uterus. Why doesn’t he have one? -one of the only genes on the Y chromosome is a “male switch”
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This note was uploaded on 10/26/2010 for the course BIOL 180 taught by Professor Freeman during the Fall '07 term at University of Washington.

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October 19 lecture - October 19 2010 The Nature of the...

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