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Series02QuantumMechanics

Series02QuantumMechanics - Reading Gray(18 to(112 OGC(4.4...

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Reading: Gray: (1–8) to (1–12) OGC: (4.4) to (4.5) II-1
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A Timeline of the Atom 400 BC 0 1800 400 B.C. Democritus: idea of an atom 1808 John Dalton introduces his atomic theory. 1820 Faraday: charge/mass ratio of protons 1885 E. Goldstein: discovers a positively charged sub-atomic particle 1898 J. J. Thompson finds a negatively charged particle called an electron. 1909 Robert Millikan experiments to find the charge and mass of the electron. 1911 Ernest Rutherford discovers the nucleus of an atom. 1913 Niels Bohr introduces his atomic theory. 1919 The positively charged particle identified by Goldstein is found to be a proton. 1920s Heisenberg, de Broglie, and Schrödinger. 1932 James Chadwick finds the neutron. 1964 The Up, Down, and Strange quark are discovered. 1974 The Charm quark is discovered. 1977 The Bottom quark is discovered. 1995 The Top (and final) quark is discovered. 1850 1900 1950 ....... ...... II-2
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The Person Behind The Science Werner Heisenberg 1901-1976 With his help, the Max Planck Institute for Physics is founded (1948) Publishes his theory on quantum mechanics (1925, at the age of 23!) Moments in a Life Highlights Studied under Max Born, James Franck, and Niels Bohr Received Nobel Prize in Physics (1932) for “for the creation of quantum mechanics…” II-3
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e - (t=0) r r The Bohr model violates the uncertainty principle! The Modern Picture of the Hydrogen Atom e - (t=1) e - (t=0) e - (t=1) e - (t=4) e - (t=2) e - (t=3) e - (t=5) e - (t=6) The uncertainty in an electron’s position is comparable to the diameter of the atom itself. Bohr Model Current Model Δ x = 0; Δ p = 0 so Δ x Δ p = 0 < ! e - (t=2) h 4 π II-4
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Uncertainty in Electron Momentum and Position e ?
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