Series15TransitionMetals

Series15TransitionMetals - Chemistry and Spectroscopy of...

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Unformatted text preview: Chemistry and Spectroscopy of the Transition Metals Structure of metal complexes Oxidation states of metals Color/Spectroscopy Magnetic Properties Chelate Effects Electron Transfer Chemistry XV-1 Alfred Werner Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1913 "in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry Zurich University XV-2 Pt (NH 3 ) 2 Cl 2 Stereochemistry of Coordination Complexes Pt Cl Cl NH 3 NH 3 Pt NH 3 Cl NH 3 Cl Orange-Yellow (dipole moment) (cis-platin) Pale Yellow No dipole XV-3 XV-4 XV-5 XV-6 XV-7 XV-8 XV-9 XV-10 XV-11 XV-12 XV-13 XV-14 Co H 3 N N H 3 NH 3 NH 3 H 3 N H 3 N Co H 3 N Cl NH 3 NH 3 H 3 N H 3 N Co H 3 N N H 3 Cl Cl H 3 N H 3 N Co H 3 N N H 3 Cl NH 3 H 3 N Cl [Cl- 3 ] [Cl- 2 ] [Cl- ] [Cl- ] [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] Inner Sphere vs Outer Sphere Coordination XV-15 Transition Metal Chemistry Multiple Oxidation States Coordination Chemistry/Stereochemistry Crystal Field Splitting: Optical and Magnetic Properties Ligand Field Splitting: Spectrochemical Series Distortion to Tetragonal, Square Planar Ligand Field Stabilization Energy Hard and Soft Acids and Bases Chelate Effect Stereochemical Control of Binding Afnity Water Exchange Electron Exchange XV-16 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 1s 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 3d 4d 5d 6d 4f 5f Organization of Periodic Chart XV-17 Shielding 3d orbitals are shielded and not exposed much; Outside world won t know as much how many d e- there are r 2 2 r 1s 3d 3p 3s Penetration: 3s > 3p > 3d XV-18 Faraday (1830): discovered this phenomenon and determined the charge to mass ratio of ions Transition Metals Are Found in Several Oxidation States M + M + M + M + Charge to mass ratio of ions: current which passes through circuit divided by mass gained on electrode. Ammeter e- XV-19 Fe(II) Fe(III) Fe(IV) Indicate oxidation state by Roman numerals in parentheses Transition Metals Are Found in Several Oxidation States M + M + M + M + Charge to mass ratio of ions: current which passes through circuit divided by mass gained on electrode. Ammeter e- XV-20 XV-21 H Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra Sc Y La Ac Ti Zr Hf V Nb Ta Cr Mo W Mn Tc Re Fe Ru Os Co Rh Ir Ni Pd Pt Cu Ag Au Zn Cd Hg B Al Ga In Tl C Si Ge Sn Pb N P As Sb Bi O S Se Te Po F Cl Br I At He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Exceptions to Filling Order 23. V (4s) 2 (3d) 3 24. Cr (4s) 1 (3d) 5 25. Mn (4s) 2 (3d) 5 Exceptions occur because electrons don t like to pair up in orbitals; so the highlighted atoms have lower energy....
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Series15TransitionMetals - Chemistry and Spectroscopy of...

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