Ch1b2010_MidtermReview

Ch1b2010_MidtermReview - 1 Also, Mass spectrometry 2 λ =...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Also, Mass spectrometry 2 λ = λ o λ = λ o /2 λ = λ o /3 Fig. 4. Same as Fig. 2, but we have noted the relationship between the various harmonics and the fundamental frequency. L λ = 2L = λ λ = L = λ /2 λ = 2L/3 = λ /3 Energy The energy Levels of a particle in a box E = 4h 2 /(8m e L 2 ) E = 9h 2 /(8m e L 2 ) E = h 2 /(8m e L 2 ) n=1 n=2 n=3 Energy Level n = quantum number Each energy level is a wavefunction Ψ n The deBroglie Relationship λ = h/mv 3 Potential Energy and Ψ n and E n r (= length) Potential Energy A realistic potential well (2 atoms connected by a spring) L (= length) Potential Energy ∞ ∞ An unrealistic potential well (i.e. Potential Energy goes to infinity at edges (particle in a box) What is Common to the Unrealistic and Realistic Potential Energy Wells • One degree of freedom = one quantum number (n) • Confining a particle within a ‘potential’ directly leads to quantized energy levels (from deBroglie hypothesis) • Wavefunctions are wave-like (i.e. sinusoidal-type functions) 4 Spectroscopy 5 Electronic Spectroscopy Information about the molecular orbitals Electrons move from one electronic configuration to another Visible/ultraviolet 1000 to 100 nanometers Molecular vibrational spectroscopy Information about the functional groups present on a molecule, the symmetry of the molecule, the structure of the molecule Molecules vibrate (Figure 2) Infrared 1.– 40 micrometers 1 micrometer = 10-6 meters Molecular rotation spectroscopy Information about dipole moments and bond lengths and angles. Molecules rotate (Figure 1) Microwaves Millimeter wavelengths Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Information about local chemical environments as well as global structure Nuclear spins flip from up to down, or from down to up Radiowaves 1.meter and longer wavelengths Spectroscopy Name Molecular Interaction Wavelength of Light Electronic Spectroscopy Information about the molecular orbitals Electrons move from one electronic configuration to another Visible/ultraviolet 1000 to 100 nanometers Molecular vibrational spectroscopy Information about the functional groups present on a molecule,...
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This note was uploaded on 10/27/2010 for the course CH 1b taught by Professor Natelewis during the Winter '09 term at Caltech.

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Ch1b2010_MidtermReview - 1 Also, Mass spectrometry 2 λ =...

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