PSY315- Study Guide 3

PSY315- Study Guide 3 - Chapter 10: Drug Classification...

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Chapter 10: Drug Classification Three important names: - 1. Chemical Name : derived from organic chemistry o Ex: dl-2-amino-1-phenylpropane - 2. Generic Name : official legal name of the drug o Ex: dl-amphetamine - 3. Brand Name/Trade Name : advertising consultants and drug manufacturers o Ex: Benzadrine - 4 . Street name : slang label applied to abused substances by their devotees o Ex: ganga Drugs are commonly stabilized into salts: - Commonly used acids: nitric, hydrochloric, phosphoric, etc… - Generic name: carries the name of the acid or base which NEURALIZED the drug - Free basing: undoing the acidification of drugs using alkaloids to purify them and strengthen their effects o ex: cocaine crack chemical equivalence: contain identical chemical components and the molecules of their active ingredients are present in identical proportions Biological equivalence: affect the same biological systems in like degrees, even if they have different active ingredients Clinical equivalence: produce the same overall effect (i.e. sedation), even if they are different molecules affecting different mechanisms
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- can be compromised if two products dissolve at different rates Classification - most useful is by behavioral effects and therapeutic objectives - Seven Categories: o 1. Sedatives: Depressants or downers Produce drowsiness, sedation, sleep Clinical Use: anesthesia, treatment of seizure disorder, sleeping pills Prototype: pentobarbital o 2. Anxiolytics: Antianxiety agents, minor tranquilizers Relieve anxiety symptoms without causing drowsiness Treat: minor mood disorders, anxiety disorders, seizure disorder, alcoholism Prototype: diazepam (valium) o 3. Neuroleptics: Antipsychotics, major tranquilizers Produce catatonia, artificial hibernation, waking states the resemble sleep Treat: hallucinations, delusions, symptoms of mania, motion sickness Prototype for Phenothiazines: chloropromazine (thorazine) Prototype for Butyrophenones: haloperidol (Haldol) These are biologically and clinically equivalent, but NOT chemically equivalent
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o 4. Antidepressants Stimulants Relieve depression in depressed Caused excitement and restlessness in normals MAO Inhibitors: interfere with the enzymes MAO Prototype: tranylcypromine (Parnate) Tricyclic antidepressents: black reuptake of NE, DA, 5HT Prototype: imipramine (Tofranil) SSI: selectively inhibit reuptake of 5HT Prototype: fluoxetine (Prozac) o 5. Stimulants Uppers, antidepressants, analeptics Used for: respiratory stimulation, local anesthetic, Prototype: dl-ampehtamine (Benzedrine) o 6. Narcotic analgesics Opiates Produce drowsiness, sleep Relieve pain in extreme cases Prototype: morphine o 7. Hallucinogens Psychotomimetics, psychotogens, psychedelics Produce: psychosis like effects and distortions in perception and cognition
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No one prototype Central Nervous System Stimulants and Depressants
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This note was uploaded on 10/27/2010 for the course NSD 225 taught by Professor Short during the Spring '08 term at Syracuse.

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PSY315- Study Guide 3 - Chapter 10: Drug Classification...

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