exp04 - In Class Question List what topics youd like to...

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In Class Question List what topics you’d like to emphasize in the quiz review: (top three) Combining resistors Voltage divider Identifying filters (high and low freq) Transfer functions (magnitude, phase) Determining resonant frequency Transformers PSpice
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Electronic Instrumentation Experiment 4 * Part A: Introduction to Operational Amplifiers * Part B: Voltage Followers * Part C: Integrators and Differentiators * Part D: Amplifying the Strain Gauge Signal
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Part A Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers Op-Amp Circuits The Inverting Amplifier The Non-Inverting Amplifier
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Operational Amplifiers Op-Amps are possibly the most versatile linear integrated circuits used in analog electronics. The Op-Amp is not strictly an element; it contains elements, such as resistors and transistors. However, it is a basic building block , just like R, L, and C. We treat this complex circuit as a black box.
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The Op-Amp Chip The op-amp is a chip, a small black box with 8 connectors or pins (only 5 are usually used). The pins in any chip are numbered from 1 (starting at the upper left of the indent or dot) around in a U to the highest pin (in this case 8). 741 Op Amp or LM351 Op Amp
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Op-Amp Input and Output The op-amp has two inputs, an inverting input (-) and a non-inverting input (+), and one output. The output goes positive when the non-inverting input (+) goes more positive than the inverting (-) input, and vice versa. The symbols + and – do not mean that that you have to keep one positive with respect to the other; they tell you the relative phase of the output. (V in =V 1 -V 2 ) A fraction of a millivolt between the input terminals will swing the output over its full range.
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Powering the Op-Amp Since op-amps are used as amplifiers, they need an external source of (constant DC) power. Typically, this source will supply +15V at +V and -15V at -V. We will use ±9V. The op-amp will output a voltage range of of somewhat less because of internal losses . The power supplied determines the output range of the op-amp. It can never output more than you put in. Here the maximum range is about 28 volts. We will use ±9V for the supply, so the maximum output range is about 16V.
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Op-Amp Intrinsic Gain Amplifiers increase the magnitude of a signal by multiplier called a gain -- “A”. The internal gain of an op-amp is very high. The exact gain is often unpredictable. We call this gain the open-loop gain or intrinsic gain . The output of the op-amp is this gain multiplied by the input 5 6 out open loop in V A 10 10 V = - ( 29 2 1 V V A V A V ol in ol out - = =
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Op-Amp Saturation The huge gain causes the output to change dramatically when (V 1 -V 2 ) changes sign. However, the op-amp output is limited by the voltage that you provide to it.
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