Lecture 1 - Human
Biology
125
 • ...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: 1/20/10 Human
Biology
125
 •  Jane2e
Gomos
Klein
 [email protected] –  
WileyPLUS
 –  
Syllabus
 –  
Lecture
Exams
 –  
Laboratory
Quizzes,
Notebook,
PresentaJon
 Chapter
1
 What
is
Life?
 Characteris1cs
of
Life
 –  Respond
to
external
 sJmuli
 –  Alter
environment
 –  Sense
environment 


 










 


 –  Adapt
to
environment
 –  Use
energy
 –  Reproduce
 –  Contain
materials
found
 in
living
organisms
 –  Maintain
homeostasis
 (constant
internal
 environment)
 –  High
degree
of
 organizaJon
 Cell
–
smallest
unit
of
life
 Living
Organisms:
Organiza1on
 Tissue
–

group
of
cells
with
similar
 funcJon
 Organ
–
structure
composed
of
 more
than
one
Jssue
with
one
or
 more
specific
funcJons
 Organ
systems
–
group
of
organs
 performing
a
biological
funcJon
 Organism
–
one
living
individual
 Maintaining
Homeostasis
 Homeo
=
unchanging
 stasis
=
standing
 Nega1ve
and
Posi1ve
Feedback
 Maintain
Homeostasis
using
feedback
systems
 A
feedback
system
requires
three
components:
 SJmulus
receptor
 Control
center
 Effector

 NegaJve
feedback
systems
operate
to
reduce
or
eliminate
 the
changes
detected
by
the
sJmulus
receptor
 Humans
funcJon
properly
only
within
narrow
 ranges
of
temperature
and
chemistry
 Homeostasis
is
controlled
by
conscious
and
 unconscious
responses

 1 1/20/10 Feedback
Loop
 Human
Biology:
Structure
and
Logic
 Biology
is
organized
into
steps
from
micro
to
macro:
 ArJficial
classificaJon
(Taxonomy)
to
idenJfy
organisms
and
 show
relaJonships
 Natural
organizaJon
is
a
system
based
on
increasing
 complexity
(atoms,
molecules,
cells,
Jssues,
organs,
organ
 systems,
organism)

 Hierarchy
of
Life

 Beyond
the
Individual
 Hierarchy
of
Life

 Beyond
the
Individual
 Taxonomy:
Domains
and
Kingdoms
 Kingdom
 Phylum
 Class
 Order
 Family
 Genus species* Human
Taxonomy
 Kingdom
–
Animalia
 Phylum
–
Vertebrata
 Class
–
Mammalia
 Order
–
Primates
 Family
–
Hominidae
 Genus
–
Homo species
–
sapiens 2 1/20/10 Human
Taxonomy
 The
Scien1fic
Method
 Cri1cal
Reasoning
 InducJve
reasoning
(hypothesis
creaJon)
 
–
creaJng
a
general
statement
from
observaJons


 DeducJve
reasoning
(experimental
design)
 
–
creaJng
a
general
hypothesis
to
a
specific
situaJon

 CriJcal
reasoning
is
useful

 in
many
aspects
of
human
biology
 Chapter
10
 Infec1ous
Disease
and
 Epidemiology
 ‐
disease
that
affects
many
individuals
at
once
via
infecJon
in
 an
area
where
the
disease
is
not
tradiJonally
found
 –  AIDS
 –  Small
pox
 –  Mumps
 –  Measles
 An
epidemic
becomes
a
pandemic
when
a
large
number
of
 people
are
affected,
over
a
wide
geographic
area—usually
 the
enJre
globe
 Epidemics
 Epidemiology
 -  Epidemiology:
applicaJon
of
the
scienJfic
method
to
the
 field
of
disease
 -  Observe
the
disease
process
 -  Hypothesize
origin
of
disease
and
who
is
suscepJble
 -  Controlled
study,
collect
data,
and
analyze
results
 -  Examples:
case
studies
and
outbreak
invesJgaJons
 -  CommunicaJon
of
these
results
is
essenJal
 Goal
of
epidemiology
is
to
stop
 current
epidemic
and
prevent
its
return
 3 1/20/10 Case
Studies
 •  Analyses
on
paJent
 experiences
or
a
group

 of
related
paJents
 •  May
form
hypotheses
about
cause
or
treatment
of

disease
 •  Complete
medical
interview
is
part
of
every
case
study;
 usually
carried
out
by
a
medical
professional
 Problems
in
Epidemiology
 Difficult
to
group
people
into
categories

 –  Differences
in
physiology,
lifestyle,
socioeconomic
level
 –  Affording
be2er
overall
health
care,
living
in
more
 sanitary
environments,
and
eaJng
healthier
foods
 Other
sources
of
error
in
epidemiology
studies
include
 –  random
error
 –  systemic
error
 –  selecJon
bias
 The
World
Health
Organiza1on
 Epidemics
can
cross
borders:
requires
internaJonal
leadership
 The
World
Health
OrganizaJon
(WHO)

 -  Branch
of
United
NaJons
 –  Provide
medical
care
to
rural
populaJons
 –  Keep
tabs
on
epidemics
 Dangerous
Epidemics
 •  •  •  •  •  HIV
 Flu
 Smallpox
 Polio
 Measles
 PotenJal
outbreak
candidates:
tuberculosis,
plague,
and
 leprosy
have
reached
epidemic
stage
before
 The
best
thing
we
can
do
to
protect
ourselves
is
wash
 our
hands
thoroughly
and
oeen!!!
 The
Disease
Process
 Epidemics
begin
with
a
simple
process:
 –  entry
into
the
host
occurs
through
a
specific
mode
of
 transmission
 •  physical
contact
(Ebola)
 •  airborne
pathogenic
parJcles
(Tuberculosis)
 •  direct
injecJon
into
the
body
(Malaria,
HIV)
 -  Pathogen
enters
the
human
body 

 •  Alters
physiology
for
survival=
discomfort
or
death
 Effects
of
Age
on
Disease
 Severity
of
any
disease
may
differ
with
age:
 –  Very
young
people:

 •  Lack
immune
system

 •  Lack
energy
reserves
 –  Elderly:
 •  Slower
immune
response

 •  Fewer
reserves
 4 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 10/27/2010 for the course BIOL 125 taught by Professor Klein during the Spring '10 term at CUNY Hunter.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online