Lecture 11 - 3/11/10 HPV
and
Vaccina*ons
...

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Unformatted text preview: 3/11/10 HPV
and
Vaccina*ons
 (movie)
HPV
 Chapter
9
 Immunity
and
the
 Lympha2c
System

 Defenses
 Our
immune
system
has
three
lines
of
defense
 –  innate
immunity,
or
non‐specific
immunity
 •  first
line
of
defense
 –  the
cutaneous
membrane
(skin)
and
mucous
membranes

 Innate
Defenses
 •  second
line
of
defense

 –  an*microbial
proteins
(complement,
interferon),
inflamma*on,
and
 phagocytes
 –  specific
immunity
 •  third
line
of
defense

 –  includes
the
interac*ons
of
white
blood
cells,
an*bodies,
and
macrophages

 Skin
and
Mucous
Membranes
 Skin
is
the
primary
physical
 barrier
 Skin
is
the
largest
organ
of
the
 human
body
 –  it
encases
the
body,
 protec*ng
it
from
 desicca*on
(drying
out)
 and
preven*ng
the
entry
 of
disease‐causing
 microbes
 Mucous
membranes
provide
 nonspecific
immunity
 –  
trap
or
inhibit
pathogen
 entry
 An2microbial
Proteins
 The
complement
system
 –  a
series
of
chemical
 reac*ons
brings
together
a
 group
of
proteins
that
are
 usually
floa*ng
freely
in
the
 plasma
 –  The
complement
system
is
 effec*ve
against
bacteria
 but
not
viruses
 1 3/11/10 An2microbial
Proteins
 •  The
chemical
answer
to
viral
infec*on
is
interferon
 •  Interferon
is
a
“local”
hormone
that
is
secreted
to
 affect
nearby
cells
 •  When
cells
detect
interferon
in
the
extracellular
fluid,
 they
prepare
for
viral
invasion
 Inflamma2on
 Localized,
not
whole‐body,
method
for
increasing
enzyme
 func*on.
 –  inflamma*on
produces
swelling,
redness,
heat,
and
pain
 –  damaged
or
irritated
cells
release
prostaglandins,
 proteins,
and
potassium,
which
trigger
inflamma*on
 when
released
into
the
inters**al
fluid

 Benefits:
 –  temporary
*ssue
repair
 –  blockage
of
con*nued
pathogen
entry
 –  slowing
of
pathogen
spreading
 –  quicker
repair
of
the
damaged
*ssue
 Phagocytes
 Wander
through
the
*ssues,
 engulfing
and
removing
 anything
that
does
not
 belong
there
 Remove
all
dead
or
dying
cells,
 cellular
debris,
and
foreign
 material

 The
Lympha2c
System
 Composed
of
lymph,
 lympha*c
vessels,
and
 lympha*c
organs
and
 *ssues
 The
Lympha2c
System
 Network
of
lympha*c
vessels
 collects
lymph
from
*ssues
 and
deposits
it
in
the
 bloodstream
 Lymph
nodes
func*on
in
concert
 with
lympha*c
*ssue,
organs,
 and
vessels


 –  return
excess
fluid
from
the
 *ssues
to
the
bloodstream
 –  defend
the
body
against
 specific
invaders
 The
Lympha2c
System
 Before
lymph
returns
to
the
bloodstream,
it
must
be
filtered
and
cleaned
 Cleaning
occurs
in
the
lympha*c
organs
 –  the
lymph
nodes
 –  Tonsils
 –  Spleen
 –  thymus
gland
 –  bone
marrow
 –  Peyer's
patch
glands
 2 3/11/10 The
Immune
System
 The
immune
system
has
two
methods
for
comba*ng
 pathogens,
both
of
which
are
carried
out
by
 lymphocytes
 –  cell‐mediated
(or
cellular)
immunity
 •  specialized
lymphocytes
func*on
directly
in
any
 pathogen
aVack
 –  an*body‐mediated
(or
humoral)
immunity
 •  specialized
lymphocytes
func*on
indirectly
by
 helping
create
disease‐figh*ng
compounds
 called
an*bodies
 The
Immune
System
 Lymphocytes
have
receptors
 on
their
cell
membranes
 wai*ng
to
detect
the
exact
 an*gen
which
fits
the
 receptor
like
a
lock
and
 key
 Each
lymphocyte
is
specific
 to
one
an*gen;
it
will
 ignore
all
others
 Two
main
classes
of
lymphocytes
are
involved
in
immunity
 B
cells
(B
lymphocytes)
 –  mature
in
the
bone
marrow

 –  spend
most
of
their
*me
inside
lymph
nodes
and
inters**al
fluid

 –  produce
an*bodies
that
are
specific
to
a
par*cular
pathogen
 T
cells
(T
lymphocytes)

 –  mature
in
the
thymus
gland
in
response
to
thymic
hormones

 –  make
up
about
half
of
the
circula*ng
lymphocytes
in
the
blood
 –  do
not
produce
an*bodies
 –  responsible
for
s*mula*ng
B
cells
and
the
direct
destruc*on
of
 an*gens
 The
Immune
System
 An2body‐Mediated
Immunity
 Humoral
immunity
–
takes
place
in
the
fluids
(humors)
of
the
body
 –  Involves
B
Cells
 An*bodies
remove
an*gens
from
the
bloodstream,
usually
by
causing
them
to
agglu2nate

 Each
B
cell
produces
a
different
an*body
that
is
directed
toward
a
specific
an*gen
 Memory
cells
(cloned
B
cells)
contribute
to
the
secondary
immune
response
 Vaccina*ons
and
booster
shots
are
aVenuated
pathogens,
designed
to
carry
the
“look
and
feel”
 of
a
harmful
pathogen,
but
without
the
ability
to
cause
disease
 –  the
body
responds
as
if
the
aVenuated
pathogen
were
s*ll
capable
of
causing
illness,
 cloning
the
proper
B
cell
and
producing
both
plasma
and
memory
cells
 –  these
shots
trigger
the
forma*on
of
memory
cells
thus
allowing
us
to
fight
pathogens
 that
have
never
actually
caused
us
to
get
sick
 An2body‐Mediated
Immunity
 An2bodies
 3 3/11/10 Governed
by
the
T
cells

 –  helper
T
cells,
cytotoxic
T
cells.
 Cell‐Mediated
Immunity
 Cell‐Mediated
Immunity
 T
cells
must
have
the
an*gen
presented
to
them
 T
cells
carry
receptors
on
their
surface
that
will
bind
to
specific
an*gens
 S*mulated
helper
T
cells
will
travel
through
the
blood
and
lymph
to
the
 lymph
nodes
where
they
will
in
turn
s*mulate
the
matching
B
cell
 The
cytotoxic
T
cell
will
seek
out
and
destroy
the
s*mula*ng
pathogen
 where
ever
it
occurs
in
the
body.
 –  Cytotoxic
T
cells
are
s*mulated
to
divide
by
cytokines
released
 from
helper
T
cells.

 –  They
respond
specifically
to
altered
HLA
(human
leukocyte
 an*gen)
proteins
 Ac2ve
and
Passive
Immunity
 Ac*ve
immunity
 –  immunity
from
experience
 –  the
immune
system
is
exposed
to
the
an*gen
in
the
natural
course
of
 life
and
immune
cells
respond
and
ac*vely
combat
the
pathogen
 Passive
immunity

 –  occurs
when
an*bodies
are
transferred
without
s*mula*ng
the
 immune
system
 –  i.e.,
from
mother
to
infant
(through
breastmilk)
 Ac2ve
Immunity
 Trainable
 The
primary
advantage
of
ac*ve
immunity
comes
from
the
crea*on
of
memory
cells
 Memory
cells
produced
during
the
primary
response
remain
in
the
body
for
years,
 lying
dormant
un*l
the
same
an*gen
reappears,
when
they
will
start
the
 secondary
response
 The
secondary
response
to
a
par*cular
an*gen
happens
far
faster
than
the
first
 response
because
the
immune
system
needs
to
s*mulate
and
clone
only
the
 memory
cells
 Secondary
responses
also
require
less
energyfrom
the
body
 Passive
Immunity
 Passive
immunity
is
the
transfer
of
an*bodies
without
s*mula*ng
the
 immune
system

 –  it
does
not
expend
energy
crea*ng
an*bodies
or
producing
clones
 –  introduced
an*bodies
provide
the
recipient
with
immediate
resistance
to
specific
 an*gens
 Autoimmune
Diseases
 An
autoimmune
response
is
an
immune
response
in
which
the
body
aVacks
 itself
 Autoimmune
diseases
have
different
effects
depending
on
what
*ssue
is
 under
aVack
 –  Mul*ple
sclerosis
–
aVack
is
directed
against
nervous
*ssue
 –  Crohn's
disease
–
aVack
is
directed
against
the
absorp*ve
por*on
of
 the
gut
 –  Type
I
diabetes
mellitus
–
aVacks
the
pancreas
 –  Lupus
‐
the
site
of
the
aVack
may
vary
(it
may
affect
the
skin,
joints,
 kidney,
and/or
lungs)

 –  Rheumatoid
arthri*s
–
aVacks
the
joint
capsules
of
the
body
 Once
the
an*bodies
are
used
or
broken
down,
however,
the
body
cannot
 create
more,
and
the
immune
protec*on
is
lost
 –  there
are
no
memory
cells
because
the
an*bodies
were
not
created
by
ac*ve
 s*mula*on
of
the
immune
system
 –  the
an*bodies
received
by
the
baby
from
the
maternal
blood
in
utero
sustain
the
infant
 for
approximately
two
to
three
months

 –  passive
immunity
can
also
be
administered
ar*ficially
in
gamma
globulin
shots,
which
 are
mixtures
of
many
an*bodies
designed
to
match
the
pathogens
the
pa*ent
may
 contact
‐
generally
lasts
three
to
six
months
 4 ...
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