Lecture 15 - STDs 
 Chapter
18.5 
...

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Unformatted text preview: 3/24/10 STDs 
 Chapter
18.5 
 The
Reproduc3ve
System:
 
 Maintaining
the
Species 
 For
all
of
its
benefits
to
the
popula2on,
sexual
 reproduc2on
carries
a
real
danger
to
 individuals
 – sexually
transmi;ed
diseases
(STDs)
 These
range
in
severity
from
a
mild
discomfort
 that
can
be
cured
with
an2bio2cs
to
severe,
 recurring
infec2ons
to
deadly
diseases
 •  STDs
may
be
caused
by
bacteria,
viruses,
fungi,
 insects,
or
pro2sts
 •  Bacterial
STDs
include
gonorrhea,
syphilis,
and
 chlamydia
 •  Yeast
infec2ons
are
caused
by
a
fungus
 •  Pubic
lice
are
insects
that
burrow
into
the
skin
 •  Vagini2s
is
usually
caused
by
a
parasite
protozoan
 STDs 
 Viruses
transmi;ed
through
sex
include
HIV,
herpes
 simplex
virus
(HSV)
1
and
2,
human
papillomavirus
 (HPV),
and
hepa22s
B
 – HSV
1:
cold
sores
in
the
mouth
and,
less
 frequently,
genital
lesions
 – HSV
2:
mostly
genital
herpes
 – Human
papillomavirus,
or
HPV,
is
a
group
of
 viruses
that
may
be
sexually
transmi;ed
 •  cause
genital
warts
and
in
some
cases
can
lead
 to
cancer
of
the
cervix,
anus,
penis,
or
vulva
 •  the
CDC
es2mates
that
over
20
million
people
 are
infected
with
HPV
 STDs 
 STDs 
 Genital
Herpes/
HSV 
 •  Herpes
 Simplex
Virus
 •  Symptoms
 •  Diagnosis
 •  Epidemiology
 •  Treatment
 •  Preven2on
 1 3/24/10 •  Sores
2
to
20
days
aSer
contact
up
to
21
days
 •  can
be
so
mild
it
goes
unno2ced
 •  may
take
longer
or
be
less
severe
in
some
people
 –  
par2al
immunity
to
the
virus
from
having
facial
 herpes,
e.g.
cold
sores.
 Ini2al
Contact
symptoms 
 •  in
the
first
a;ack
some2mes
causes
visible
sores
 •  last
between
10
‐
21
days
 •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  usually
painful
and
may
itch,
burn
or
2ngle
 swollen
lymph
glands


 inflamed
blisters
develop
around
infected
area

 Headache
/
muscle
ache

 fever



 vaginal
or
penis
discharge

 a
burning
sensa2on
in
the
genitals

 Bumps
that
develop
painful
blisters,
which
crust
 over,
form
a
scab,
and
heal.
 Symptoms 
 Recurrence 
 •  80%
of
persons
having
a
first

 



episode
caused
by
HSV‐2
will
have

 



at
least
one
recurrence
 •  50%
of
persons
with
HSV‐1
will
experience
a
 recurrence

 •  The
most
common
scenario
is
occasional
 recurrences
(about
4
a;acks
per
year)
Usually,
 the
first
year
has
the
most
viral
ac2vity
 Causes 
 •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Virus
shedding,
skin
contact
 menstrua2on

 drinking
a
lot
of
alcohol

 exposure
of
the
area
to
strong
sunlight

 condi2ons
that
compromise
a
person's
immune
system

 prolonged
periods
of
stress

 ultraviolet
light

 fric2on
or
damage
to
the
skin,
caused
by,
for
example,
 sexual
intercourse,
may
also
lead
to
a
recurrence

 Treatment 
 •  Non‐steroidal
an2‐inflammatory
drugs
may
be
 used
to
treat
this
condi2on.

 •  Vaccines
in
trial
 •  Diet
 •  Stress
reduc2on
 2 3/24/10 Epidemiology 
 •  1
in
every
4
people
who
are
sexually
ac2ve
 •  high
rates
of
infec2on
occur
between
the
ages
 of
15‐40
years
 •  Similar
rates
throughout
the
world
 •  •  •  •  Preven2on 
 Abs2nence
 Latex
condoms
 Lubricant
 Foams/Spermicides
do
NOT
offer
protec2on
 •  Barrier
methods
of
birth
control
establish
a
physical
 obstacle
between
sperm
and
egg
 •  Spermicides
are
creams
and
jellies
that
contain
 nonoxynol
9,
a
compound
that
kills
sperm
by
 disrup2ng
the
cell
membrane
 – spermicides
are
more
effec2ve
when
used
in
 conjunc2on
with
a
barrier
method
 Barrier
Methods 
 •  The
condom
is
a
barrier
worn
on
the
penis,
whereas
the
 female
condom,
cervical
cap,
and
diaphragm
are
barriers
 worn
in
the
vaginal
area
 –  latex
condoms
are
also
effec2ve
against
most
STDs
 –  natural
condoms,
made
of
lambskin,
do
not
block
STDs,
 but
do
provide
a
barrier
against
sperm
 –  a
diaphragm
blocks
sperm
but
does
not
protect
the
 vagina
against
STDs
 –  a
cervical
cap
is
a
smaller
version
of
the
diaphragm
that
 is
placed
over
the
cervix
 –  to
be
effec2ve,
both
devices
must
be
fi;ed
by
a
 physician
 Barrier
Methods 
 HPV:
 
 Human
Papillomavirus 
 •  •  •  •  Symptoms
 Diagnosis
 Epidemiology
 Treatment
 •  Most
do
not
develop
 symptoms
 •  Itching,
discharge
 •  Genital
Warts
 •  Cervical
Cancer
 •  Also
linked
to
vulva,
 vagina,
penis,
anus,
 and
head
and
neck
 cancers
 Symptoms 
 3 3/24/10 Diagnosis 
 •  •  •  •  Abnormal
PAP
smear
 biopsy
 DNA
tes2ng
 small,
fleshy,
raised
bumps,
but
they
 some2mes
can
be
extensive
and
have
a
 cauliflower‐like
appearance
 Epidemiology 
 Epidemiology 
 •  50%
sexually
ac2ve
people
 •  90%
‐99%
of
all
cervical
cancers
 •  1‐5%
of
women
infected
with
HPV
will
get
 cancer
 •  1‐15%
of
infected
people
with
HPV
will
get
 genital
warts
 Treatment 
 •  Remove
lesions
(excision,
laser,
freezing,
acid)
 •  5%
cream
of
imiquimod
(Aldara)

 •  Interferon
therapy

 Preven2on •  Vaccina2on
 •  Abs2nence
 •  Condom
use
 
 4 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/27/2010 for the course BIOL 125 taught by Professor Klein during the Spring '10 term at CUNY Hunter.

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