Lecture 16 - 3/24/10
 Terminology
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Unformatted text preview: 3/24/10
 Terminology
 Vaccines
and
Immunity
 •  Serum:
Fluid
that
remains
a>er
blood
has
 [email protected] •  AnC‐serum:
serum
with
anCbodies
to
a
 specific
anCgen.
 –  Obtained
by
injecCng
animal
with
anCgen
 –  Extract
pre‐formed
anCbodies
 •  Serology:
study
of
reacCons
between
 anCbodies
and
anitgens.
 Acquired
Immunity
 •  Example
of
Naturally
Acquired
Immunity?
 •  ArCficially
Acquired
Immunity
 –  ImmunizaCon:
anCgens
are
introduced
via
 vaccines
to
induce
immune
response
 Adap%ve
Immune
Response
 •  ArCficially
Acquired
Passive
Immunity
 –  AnC‐serum
(pre‐formed
anCbodies)
 Pathogens
that
Elicit
Immune
Response
 •  Proteins
or
polysaccarides
from
a
foreign
 organism:
anCgens
(epitopes)
on…
 –  
Cell
walls,
capsids
 –  Albumin
(found
in
vaccines),
Pollen
 Causing
an
Immune
Response:
 Overcoming
limitaCons
 •  small
molecules
(haptens),
nucleic
acids,
and
 [email protected] •  Adjuvant:
carrier
molecule
that
enhances
 immune
response
 –  Contain
parts
that
tend
to
acCvate
immune
 response
 –  Aluminium
salts,
organics,
virosomes
 •  Normally
do
not
elicit
immune
response
 –  Lipids
 –  Low
molecular
weight
molecules
(Hapten)
 •  drugs
 1
 3/24/10
 Vaccine
PreservaCves
 •  Prevent
growth
or
kill
microorganisms
especially
 bacteria
and
fungi
that
could
contaminate
product
 prior
to
administraCon.
 •  Thimerosal:
mercury
containing
compound
 •  Phenol:
nerve
toxin
 •  Phemerol:
nerve
toxin
 •  2‐phenoxyethanol:
anestheCc
and

 Neuropsychologic

 –  Part
of
“anC‐freeze”
family
 •  [email protected](Live)
 –  Whole
organism
 –  Can
not
replicate
 –  Part
of
pathogen
 Vaccine
Strategies
 •  InacCvaCon
(Killed)
 •  Purified
(Subunit)
AnCgen
 •  SyntheCc
PepCde
 –  Under
development,
predict
mutaCons
 –  Modify
DNA
to
create
pathogen
proteins
 •  Recombinant
AnCgen/Vector
 •  DNA
 Problems…
 •  Why
might
a
vaccine
not
confer
immunity?
 •  •  •  •  Tentanus
 Requires
Boosters
 Immune
compromised
 MutaCon
 HIV
rapidly
evolves
into
different
“strains”

 a=er
the
ini%al
infec%on
 Viral
diversity
in
9
AIDS
pa%ents
 HPV
VACCINES
CHARACTERISTICS
 Vaccine Characteristics Vaccine Type HPV Types Dosing Schedule Female Age (yrs) Vaccine protection Cold Chain US FDA Approval Cost GARDASIL (MERCK) Prophylactic 6,11,16,18 CERVARIX (GSK) Prophylactic 16,18 ConsideraCons
for
Introducing
HPV
Vaccine
 •  Affordability
 •  Healthcare
infrastructure
 •  Capacity
to
iniCate
and
sustain
 vaccinaCon
 •  Cost
effecCveness
 •  Cultural
Acceptability
 •  PoliCcal
Will
 •  Public
Support
 •  Capacity
for
secondary
prevenCon‐ screening
and
treatment
 AgnosC
and
Goldie,

2007
 0, 2 months, 6 months 0, 1 month, 6 months 9-26 ~ 5 years or more 2-8 degrees Celsius June 2006 USD 120/Dose 10-55 ~ 5 years or more 2-8 degrees Celsius Expected 10/07-01/08 USD ? 11
 12
 2
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/27/2010 for the course BIOL 125 taught by Professor Klein during the Spring '10 term at CUNY Hunter.

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