Skin Cancer L27

Skin Cancer L27 - Chapter
11
 Skin
Cancers
...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter
11
 Skin
Cancers
 Cancer
Screening
 Treatment
 Cancers
 Cancers
are
classified
according
to
their
loca1on
and
the
type
 of
1ssue
in
which
they
appear
 –  Carcinomas
=
epithelial
1ssues
 –  Adenomas
=
glandular
1ssues
 –  Sarcomas
=
connec1ve
and
muscular
1ssues
 –  Blastomas
=
embryonic
1ssues
 –  Leukemias
=
involving
the
blood
 –  Lymphomas
=
involving
the
lympha1c
system
 Cancers
 Cancers
 Skin
 Skin
 Skin
Cancer
 Skin
cancer
is
the
most
common
type
of
cancer
for
both
men
and
women
 There
are
three
types
of
skin
cancer
 –  basal
cell
carcinoma
 –  squamous
cell
carcinoma
 –  melanoma
 Skin
Cancer
Symptoms/Screening
 Some
cancers
are
diagnosed
based
on
a
set
of
symptoms,
and
others
can
be
detected
 through
rou1ne
screening

 Skin
cancers
may
have
many
different
appearances.
They
can
be
small,
shiny,
waxy,
 scaly
and
rough,
firm
and
red,
crusty
or
bleeding,
or
have
other
features.
 Therefore,
anything
suspicious
should
be
looked
at
by
a
physician.

 Some
features
to
look
for:
 Asymmetry:
one
half
of
the
abnormal
skin
area
is
different
than
the
other
half
 Borders:
irregular
borders
 Color:
varies
from
one
area
to
another
with
shades
of
tan,
brown,
or
black
(some1mes
 white,
red,
blue)
 Diameter:
usually
(but
not
always)
larger
than
6
mm
in
size
(diameter
of
a
pencil
 eraser)Any
skin
growth
that
bleeds
or
will
not
heal
 Cancer
Screening
 Some
cancers
are
diagnosed
based
on
a
set
of
symptoms,
and
others
can
be
detected
 through
rou1ne
screening

 There
are
four
ways
to
make
a
defini1ve
diagnosis
of
cancer
 –  screening
tests
 –  imaging
(mammography,
X‐rays)
 •  magne1c
resonance
imaging
(MRI)
 •  computerized
axial
tomography
(CAT
or
CT)
scanning
uses
computerized
analysis
of
 con1nuously
scanning
X‐rays
to
create
a
“cross
sec1on”
of
the
area
being
scanned
 –  tumor
enzyme
tests
 –  gene1c
tests
 Tumor
markers
are
chemicals
produced
by
the
body
in
response
to
the
development
 of
a
tumor

 –  when
they
are
present
in
the
blood,
they
“mark”
or
indicate
the
presence
of
a
tumor
 Cancer
Screening
 Cancer
Treatment
 Cancer
treatment
has
long
focused
on
killing
or
removing
the
primary
tumor
and
then
 aSacking
any
metasta1c
tumors
that
may
be
present
 There
are
three
standard
treatments
for
cancer
 – 
surgery
 – 
radia1on
therapy
 – 
chemotherapy
 Experimental
treatments
include
 – 
gene1c
therapy
 – 
magne1cism
 – 
phototherapy
 Cancer
Treatment
 Chemotherapy
disrupts
cells
throughout
the
body

 –  it
uses
compounds
that
specialize
in
killing
fast‐growing
cells,
so
it
is
used
to
aSack
cancers
 that
have
spread
 –  chemotherapy
interrupts
cell
growth
throughout
the
en1re
body
 •  prevents
cell
division
in
normal
healthy
cells
as
well
as
cancer
cells

 •  the
hope
is
that
the
growth
of
the
cancerous
tumor
will
be
stopped
before
the
drug
causes
death
of
 healthy
organs
 Cancer
drugs
given
either
orally
or
by
infusion
travel
throughout
the
body
 •  prevents
the
cancer
from
developing
a
resistance
to
one
par1cular
medica1on
 –  some
drugs
damage
cellular
DNA;
othersinterfere
with
DNA
synthesis;
and
s1ll
others
aSack
 cancerous
cellular
processes
 –  different
drug
“cocktails”
are
created
to
aSack
different
types
of
cancers

 –  side
effects
include
nausea
and
lack
of
appe1te,
fa1gue,
hair
loss,
and
dry
mouth,
as
well
as
 anemia
due
to
the
killing
of
red
blood
cells
and
reduced
immune
system
func1oning
due
to
 the
killing
of
white
blood
cells
 Radia1on
therapy
can
be
deadly
to
dividing
cells
 –  –  –  –  it
does
not
dis1nguish
between
cancer
cells
and
the
cells
of
health
1ssue
 it
interrupts
cell
growth
only
where
the
radia1on
beam
is
aimed
 localized
effects
include
hair
loss,
irritated
skin,
blistering
and
burns
 other
systemic
effects
include
dry
mouth,
fa1gue
and
nausea
 Cancer
Treatment
 Bone
marrow
transplants
are
some1mes
performed
in
conjunc1on
with
 chemotherapy
or
high‐dose
radia1on
therapy
that
destroys
fast‐dividing
 bone
marrow
cells
 New
methods
usually
use
one
of
three
refined
techniques
for
controlling
 cancer
 –  aSacking
the
tumor
cells
with
specifically
designed
or
selected
 immune
cells
or
an1bodies
(immunotherapy)
 –  crippling
the
proteins
that
promote
the
cancer
 –  cuYng
off
the
blood
supply
to
the
tumor
(an1‐angiogenesis)
 Cancer
Treatment
 The
goal
of
immunotherapy
is
to
boost
the
immune
system
in
an
effort
 to
help
it
fight
the
cancer
more
effec1vely

 –  This
is
done
in
one
of
two
ways
 •  by
assis1ng
in
the
killing
of
the
cancer
cell
through
crea1ng
 vaccines
against
the
cancer

 •  by
increasing
the
amount
and
ac1vity
of
certain
types
of
 killer
cells
 Adding
compounds
such
as
interleukin‐
2,
interferons,
and
tumor
 necrosis
factor
will
assist
the
body’s
natural
immune
cells
in
figh1ng
 the
disease
 Cancer
Treatment
 An1‐angiogenesis
drugs
can
starve
a
tumor
 –  the
tumor
develops
its
own
blood
supply
through
the
forma1on
 of
new
blood
vessels
 –  researchers
are
currently
studying
a
number
of
drugs
that
stop
 the
process
of
angiogenesis,
stopping
the
forma1on
of
these
 new
vessels
and
essen1ally
starving
the
tumor
of
nutri1on
 –  in
theory,
once
the
tumor
runs
out
of
nutrients,
it
should
shrink
 Cancer
gene
therapy
is
rendered
almost
incomprehensibly
complicated
 by
the
sheer
number
of
gene1c
muta1ons
that
must
be
corrected,
 and
also
by
the
complex
rela1onship
between
the
muta1on
and
 later
promotors
of
disease
 Cancer
Treatment
 Magne1sm
and
phototherapy
are
in
the
early
stages
of
 experimenta1on

 –  powerful
magnets
are
being
experimented
with
in
an
aSempt
to
 target
chemotherapy
more
precisely
 –  lasers
and
light‐sensi1ve
drugs
are
being
used
in
a
similar
 fashion
to
insert
chemotherapy
deep
into
tumors
embedded
in
 organs
 The
difference
between
these
drugs
and
previously
discussed
 chemotherapy
is
that
the
light‐sensi1ve
drugs
are
inac1ve
as
they
 travel
the
body
 –  laser
light
directed
at
the
tumor
and
focused
to
a
par1cular
 frequency
sets
off
a
chemical
reac1on
in
the
drugs
that
 enhances
their
ability
to
kill
tumor
cells
 ...
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