Chpt 14 Lec - Chemistry 8/e Steven S. Zumdahl and Susan A....

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Chemistry 8/e Steven S. Zumdahl and Susan A. Zumdahl Acids and bases Chapter 14 1
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Acids and Bases Acids and bases: - experimental definitions - their interaction and apply fundamentals of chemical equilibrium Acids and bases are chemical opposites
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Acids and Bases • An acid is a compound that – Tastes sour – Causes litmus to turn red – Reacts with metals to produce hydrogen gas – Reacts with bases to form water and salts – Some common acids you may encounter daily are: acetic acid; citric acid; lactic acid;
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Acids and Bases • A base is a compound that – Tastes bitter – Causes litmus to turn blue – Feels slippery – Reacts with acids to form water and salts – Some common bases you may encounter daily are: sodium hydroxide; ammonia; sodium bicarbonate – Many soaps contain bases
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Acid Nomenclature Flowchart hydro- prefix -ic ending 2 elements -ate ending becomes -ic ending -ite ending becomes -ous ending no hydro- prefix 3 elements ACIDS start with 'H' 5
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Practice -What are the names for the following acids? H 2 CO 3 H 2 S HNO 3 HI HNO 2
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Practice - What are the formulas for the following acids? chlorous acid phosphoric acid hydrofluoric acid
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Base Nomenclature NaOH sodium hydroxide KOH potassium hydroxide Ba(OH) 2 barium hydroxide Mg(OH) 2 magnesium hydroxide Al(OH) 3 aluminum hydroxide Fe(OH) 3 iron (III) hydroxide Metal first + Hydroxide Type I metal Type II metal 8
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Acid/Base definitions 9
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Acids and Bases The Arrhenius theory (first developed in 1887) – An acid is a molecular substance that breaks up in aqueous solution into hydrogen ions (H + ) and anions – A base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH - ) in aqueous solution – Proposed that the essential reaction between an acid and a base is the combination of the H + and OH - to form water • The remaining ions combine to form a salt 10
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Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) in water Arrhenius base is a substance that produces OH - in water Hydronium ion 11
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Acids and Bases The Bronsted-Lowry acid-base theory (proposed in 1923) –An acid is a proton donor –A base is a proton acceptor 12
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A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor A Brønsted-Lowry base is a proton acceptor acid conjugate base base conjugate acid everything that remains after a proton is lost formed when a proton is transfer to a base 13
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Conjugate Pairs Two substances related to each other by donating and accepting a proton 14
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Practice Label the acid, base, conjugate acid, and conjugate base in each reaction: HCl + OH - Cl - + H 2 O H 2 O + H 2 SO 4 HSO 4 - + H 3 O + 15
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Acids and Bases Identify acid, base, conjugate pairs NH 4 + + CN - NH 3 + HCN CO 3 2- + HF HCO 3 - + F - HSO 4 - + HCl H 2 SO 4 + Cl -
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Lewis acid - a substance that accepts an electron pair Acids and Bases Lewis base - a substance that donates an electron pair 17
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hydronium ion is an excellent example.
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This note was uploaded on 10/27/2010 for the course CHEM 104 taught by Professor Quigley during the Summer '08 term at CUNY Hunter.

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Chpt 14 Lec - Chemistry 8/e Steven S. Zumdahl and Susan A....

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