Chpt 16 Lec - Chapter 16 Chemistry 8/e Steven S. Zumdahl...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 16 Chemistry 8/e Steven S. Zumdahl and Susan A. Zumdahl Solubility and complex ion equilibria 1 Solubility Equilibria Acid and base equilibria involve homogenous systems Same phase Saturated solution The solution is in contact with undissolved solute. Heterogeneous equilibria system 2 NaCl(s) Na + Na + Na + Na + Na + Cl- Cl- Cl- Cl- Cl- Solution Equilibrium 3 Dissolving a salt A salt is an ionic compound - usually a metal cation bonded to a non-metal anion. The dissolving of a salt is an example of equilibrium. The cations and anions are attracted to each other in the salt. They are also attracted to the water molecules. The water molecules will start to pull out some of the ions from the salt crystal. 4 At first, the only process occurring is the dissolving of the salt - the dissociation of the salt into its ions. However, soon the ions floating in the water begin to collide with the salt crystal and are pulled back in to the salt. ( precipitation ) Eventually the rate of dissociation is equal to the rate of precipitation. The solution is now saturated . It has reached equilibrium . 5 Solubility Equilibrium: Dissociation = Precipitation In a saturated solution, there is no change in amount of solid precipitate at the bottom of the beaker. Concentration of the solution is constant. The rate at which the salt is dissolving into solution equals the rate of precipitation. Dissolving NaCl in water Na + and Cl - ions surrounded by water molecules NaCl Crystal 6 Solubility Equilibria Types of Solutions Saturated Unsaturated Supersaturated 7 NaCl (s) Na + (aq) + Cl- (aq) soluble AgCl (s) Ag + (aq) + Cl- (aq) insoluble Ca(OH) 2(s) Ca 2+ (aq) + 2OH- (aq) slightly soluble Degrees of Solubility 8 Solubility Rules Salts are generally more soluble in HOT water (Gases are more soluble in COLD water) Alkali Metal salts are very soluble in water. Alkali Metal salts are very soluble in water....
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This note was uploaded on 10/27/2010 for the course CHEM 104 taught by Professor Quigley during the Summer '08 term at CUNY Hunter.

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Chpt 16 Lec - Chapter 16 Chemistry 8/e Steven S. Zumdahl...

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