Chpt 17 Lec - Chemistry 8/e Steven S. Zumdahl and Susan A....

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Chapter17 Thermodynamics Chemistry 8/e Steven S. Zumdahl and Susan A. Zumdahl Spontaneity, Entropy, Free Energy 1
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Chapter Contents Spontaneous Process and Entropy, S 2 nd Law of Thermo- dynamics, Entropy’s Change with Temperature Change in S During Chemical Reactions “Free Energy”, G , & Chemical Reactions G ’s Dependence on Pressure Pointing the Way to Equilibrium G ’s Relation to K Non- PV Work & G 2
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Definitions Spontaneous Process – occurs without outside intervention and says nothing about rate Thermodynamics – the study of energy flow, we will use it to predict if a process will occur 1 st Law of Thermodynamics – the energy of the universe is constant; energy can neither be created nor destroyed 3
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4 Law of Conservation of Energy • energy can neither be created nor destroyed • the total amount of energy in the universe is a constant • energy can be transformed from one form to another (kinetic to potential) 1 st Law of Thermodynamics 1 st Law of thermodynamics accounts for energy, but gives no hint why a particular process occurs in a given direction.
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Thermodynamics vs Kinetics Kinetics tells us how fast something can occur and to what extent, while thermodynamics tells us the difference in the initial and final states and under what conditions the reaction occurs in the direction written. Kinetics = pathway btw reactants and products Thermodynamics = initial and final states not pathway 5
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Figure 16.2 Rate of Reaction 6
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Spontaneity Spontaneous Process ; proceeds on its own without outside intervention Water flowing downhill Melting of ice Ball rolling downhill Rusting of iron Oxidation of Copper Thermodynamics addresses why these processes occur in one direction and not in the reverse but gives no information about the amount of time required for the process 7
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Spontaneous A reaction that will occur without outside intervention. We can’t determine how fast. We need both thermodynamics and kinetics to describe a reaction completely.
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Chpt 17 Lec - Chemistry 8/e Steven S. Zumdahl and Susan A....

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