Chpt 19 Lec - Chemistry 8/e Steven S. Zumdahl and Susan A....

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Chapter 19 Nuclear Chemistry Chemistry 8/e Steven S. Zumdahl and Susan A. Zumdahl 1
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The Nucleus • Remember that the nucleus is comprised of protons and neutrons. • The number of protons is the atomic number. • The number of protons and neutrons together is effectively the mass of the atom. 2
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Isotopes • Not all atoms of the same element have the same mass due to different numbers of neutrons in those atoms. • There are three naturally occurring isotopes of uranium: Uranium-234 Uranium-235 Uranium-238 3
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Radioactivity • It is not uncommon for some nuclides of an element to be unstable, or radioactive . • We refer to these as radionuclides . • There are several ways radionuclides can decay into a different nuclide. 4
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Nuclear Notations Alpha, beta, gamma and positron are emitted by radioactive (unstable) nuclei. 5
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Types of Radioactive Decay Alpha Decay Loss of an -particle (a helium nucleus) He 4 2 U 238 92  Th 234 90 He 4 2 + 6
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Types of Radioactive Decay Beta Decay Loss of a -particle (a high energy electron) 0 −1 e 0 −1 or I 131 53 Xe 131 54  + e 0 −1 9
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Types of Radioactive Decay Positron Emission Loss of a positron (a particle that has the same mass as but opposite charge than an electron) e 0 1 C 11 6  B 11 5 + e 0 1 11
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Chpt 19 Lec - Chemistry 8/e Steven S. Zumdahl and Susan A....

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