Biochemistry_Review

Biochemistry_Review - p age 1 Metabol isn1 Review: Step by...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
page 1 Metabol isn1 Review: Step by Step from Organic Chemistry to Biochemistry Overview: This handout contains a review of the fundamental parts of organic chemistry needed for metabolism. Dr. Richard Feinman Department of Biochemistry Room 7-20, BSB (718) 270-2252 rfeinman@downstate.edu
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
STEP-BY-STEP: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY TO NUTRITION AND METABOLISM page 2 CHAPTER O. INTRODUCTION ENERGY il Where we're going. The big picture in nutrition and metabolism is shown in a block diagram or "black box" diagram. A black box approach shows inputs and outputs to a process that may not be understood. It is favored by engineers who are the group that are most uncomfortable with the idea that they don't ----c0 2 know anything at all. The black box approach can frequently give you some insight because it organizes whatever you do know. For example: CELL MA TERIA L 1. Even though the block diagram is very simple, just looking at the inputs and outputs gives us some useful information. The diagram says animals obtain energy by the oxidation of food to CO 2 and water. Although you knew this before, the diagram highlights the fact that understanding biochemistry probably involves understanding oxidation-reduction reactions. 2. The diagram also indicates what might not be obvious: a major part of the energy obtained from oxidation of food is used to make new cell material. Although we think of organisms using energy for locomotion or to do physical work, in fact, most of the energy used is chemical energy. 3. Inside the black boxes in the diagram contain are the (organic) chemical reactions that convert food into energy and cell material. Biochemistry is the study of these organic reactions, the structure of the proteins and enzymes (catalysts) that control these processes and the genetic material that specifies which proteins are to be made for each cell and organism. 4. The Strategy: We are going to break into the black boxes: Our first intuition from the black box, consistent with our everyday experience, is that food is oxidized, like fuel in a car, to obtain energy. Unlike a car however, which uses one step explosive reactions, biological systems must carry out the reaction in small steps in order to capture the energy in chemical compounds. Metabolism is the step-by-step conversion of food into break-down products for energy (catabolism) and the step-by-step conversion of some food to cell material (anabolism). 2. Organic chemistry. To a large extent, nutrition and metabolism is applied organic chemistry. There's more to it than that, but most of it is organic reactions. The good news is that only a small part of what you learned in organic chemistry is critical for understanding biochemistry. The model reaction and a preview. When ethanol is ingested, the liver converts it to acetaldehyde and then to acetic acid. This sequence, alcohol -~ aldehyde carboxylic acid, are the fir!;;t steps in a larger process which ultimately converts the carbons of ethanol to C02. This is an oxidation {indicated by [0] and, in this sense, ingested alcohol can be burned as a fuel to produce energy for life. This series of reactions is of clear
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 10/27/2010 for the course BIOCHEM 333 taught by Professor G during the Spring '09 term at CUNY Hunter.

Page1 / 57

Biochemistry_Review - p age 1 Metabol isn1 Review: Step by...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online