Organic Chemistry I Dr Alex RocheOrganic chemistry is the chemistry of Carbon and its compounds. Organic molecules constitute the essence of life (fats, sugars, proteins, DNA), and also permeate our everyday lives (cotton, polyester, toothpaste, plastics, etc). Chemistry’s top two commercial fields are organic dominated: Pharmaceuticals and Polymers. Organic chemistry is also easy - IF: don’t fall behind do the problems understand, not memorize Notes are available at: http://crab.rutgers.edu/~alroche/ Office: SCI 311 Lab: SCI 328F Tel: (856) 225-6166 [email protected]Ch01 Introduction 1
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Structure of the AtomAtoms consist of: Protons (+ve) Neutrons (neutral) Electrons (-ve) Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus and have similar masses (1800x that of an electron). Atoms with the same number of protons but different neutrons are called ISOTOPES. E.g. 12C (major isotope) 13C (~1%, used in carbon NMR) 14C (radioactive, used in Carbon dating) Almost all the mass of an atom is in the nucleus, but it is the electronsthat are involved in the chemical bonding and reactions of an atom. Electronic Structure of the AtomElectrons display wave-particle duality. Electrons are located in orbitals around a nucleus, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle tells us that we cannot pinpoint exactly where the electron is. So we use the term ELECTRON DENSITY, which is the probability of finding the electron in a particular part of the orbital. ORBITAL: is an allowed energy state for an electron, with an associated probability function that defines the distribution of electron density in space. Atomic OrbitalsThese are different shells at differing distances away from the nucleus. Each has a principal quantum number (n). As n increases, Shells are further from the nucleus Higher energy Can hold more electrons n=1 can hold 2 electrons, n=2 can hold 8 electrons Ch01 Introduction 2