Anthropology Notes

Anthropology Notes - Anthropology Notes 2nd Midterm Chapter...

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Anthropology Notes: 2 nd Midterm Chapter 5: Kottak Yehudi Cohen- adaptive strategy- describes society’s system of economic production “most important reason for similarities between multple unrelated society’s is their possession of a similar adaptive stratety” similar economic causes have similar sociocultural effects (ex. Foragers have similar societies) created 5 adaptive strategies: foraging, horticulture, agriculture, pastoralssim, industrialism mode of production – way of organizing production “a set of social relations through which labor is deployed” classical economic theory- our wants are infinite while our means are limited money goes to… subsistence funds- work to eat, survive, pay for food replacement fund- replace everyday necessities such as tools, clothes, shelter social fund – help friends relatives neibors, etc ceremonial fund – money for rituals, etc rent fund – in nonindustrial societies, people must pay money to a higher force (sharecroppers, tenant farmers) peasants – small scale agriculturilists Live in state organized societies Produce food without elaborate technology (chemicals, etc) Must satisfy government obligations Karl Polanyi – economist, did studies of exchange in societies 3 principles that guide exchanges : market principle, redistribution, reciprocity one of these usually dominates in a society, the one that determines how production workstribes
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MARKET PRINCIPLE: dominates in capitalist society, items are bought and sold with means to maximize profit. SUPPLY AND DEMAND REDISTRIBUTION:everyone gives their goods to a higher center or collection agency, it is Redistributed after that according to needs. Ex. Is the Cherokee indians, chief “owned” all the corn, let people have it out of generosity RECIPROCITY: exchange between social equals. Dominant in egalitarian societies. (foragers, cultivators, pastoralists) 3 degreees of reciprocity : generalized, balanced, negative (pg. 99) kottak POTLATCH – practiced in tribes of North Pacific Coast in Northern America (Salish, Kwaltuli) potlatch sponsors give away goods to others in the community for prestige Bestileo in Madagscar – in 1960’s were very independent, had no need for money, now people are somewhat more capitalistic. 10/29/08 Lecture Theoretical Perspectives on Economy Neoclassical – dominant framework founded by Adam Smith – grappling with a new growing world economically basic assumptions- self interested rational individual , maximazation, competition basic assumption – world is made up of tons of indivudals, they evaluate the value of things, and decide what is best for them… the economy is the sum or total of all these self interested decisions (whatever they think is the best choice) microeconomics: search for laws governing behavior. o
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This note was uploaded on 11/02/2010 for the course ANTH ANTH 2 taught by Professor Walsh during the Fall '08 term at UCSB.

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Anthropology Notes - Anthropology Notes 2nd Midterm Chapter...

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