Psy Section Midterm Review

Psy Section Midterm Review - 17:25:00 HIsotry and Research...

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Psy Section Midterm Review 21/10/2008 17:25:00 HIsotry and Research Methods Philosophical Issues The great debates Mind - brain Nature vs. nurture Free will vs. determinism Inductive Reasoning - doesn’t gurantee a right answer 1. begin with a series of experiences 2. find pattern 3. induce a general rule o Specific to the general o Generalize from specific examples to an overall rule or patter (not going to be certain that it is right) o The way scientists form theories Deductive Reasoning – correctly done, the conclusion can certainly be correct Begin with a set of premises and facts Apply general rules of logic Derive a conclusion o General to the specific o If premises true and logic correctly applied you can have certainty that conclusion is right o The way scientists test their hypotheses against data
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Conducitng Research Correlations Correlation o Association between 2 variables o Correlation is describe on a scale of -1 to +1 o Negative correlation As one thing increases, the other decreases o Positive Correlation As one thing increases, so does another o Zero correlation No connection Correlation does not equal causality! o Just because two or more things are correlated doesn’t mean there is a casual relationship between them o 3 rd variable problem: there’s something else going on to explain the relationship Samples and Populations Population o The whole group you are interested in (i.e. all the people in the world, all the people in America, all UCSB students etc.) o Sample A limited number of cases taken from a population Types of Statisitcs Descriptive o Organize and summarize data so easier to understand
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o Describes data in a sample (the group you tested) Inferential o Make inferences about a population based on data from a sample Neuroscience Major Brain Segments Hindbrain o Ponds and Medulla o Cerebellum – motor movement, posture Midbrain o Midbrain Reticular Formation – arousal (sleep-wake cycle) o Superior Colliculi (auditory and visual targeting) o Inferior Colliculi (auditory and visual targeting) Forebrain o Basal forebrain o “Old Cortex” o “New Cortex” Frontal Lobe Voluntary motor function, planning, cognitive control, Strategic Thinking (PFC), Social Cognition, Short Term Memory (STM) Parietal Lobe Perception, Sensation, Body Sensation, Arithmetic Neglect Syndrome
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o Left side neglect due to right parietal damage “Binding problem” o “The binding problem is the problem of how the unity of conscious perception is brought about by the distributed activities of the central nervous system.” Occipital Lobe Vision, Pattern Recognition Blindsight – ball thrown at your head, you react even if it is from an area you cannot see Temporal Lobe Hearing, Face & Object Identification, Language, Long Term Memory Neuroscience Lobes of neocortex w/functions Frontal o Strategic thinking (PFC) – tinkertoys o
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