Anthro2 Midterm2 Key Terms

Anthro2 Midterm2 Key Terms - CHAPTER 5 agriculture

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CHAPTER 5 agriculture    Nonindustrial system of plant cultivation characterized by  continuous and intensive use of land and labor. 88 balanced reciprocity    See  generalized reciprocity  . 99 band    Basic unit of social organization among foragers. A band  includes fewer than one hundred people; it often splits up  seasonally. 85, 109 correlation    An association between two or more variables such that when  one changes (varies), the other(s) also change(s) (covaries);  for example, temperature and sweating. 85 economy    A population's system of production, distribution, and  consumption of resources. 92 generalized reciprocity    Principle that characterizes exchanges between closely related  individuals. As social distance increases, reciprocity becomes  balanced and finally negative. 99 horticulture    Nonindustrial system of plant cultivation in which plots lie  fallow for varying lengths of time. 86 market principle    Profit-oriented principle of exchange that dominates in states,  particularly industrial states. Goods and services are bought  and sold, and values are determined by supply and demand. 
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means (or factors) of  production    Land, labor, technology, and capital—major productive  resources. 93 mode of production    Way of organizing production—a set of social relations through  which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by  means of tools, skills, and knowledge. 92 negative reciprocity    See  generalized reciprocity  . 99 nomadism, pastoral    Movement throughout the year by the whole pastoral group (men, women, and children) with their animals. More generally,  such constant movement in pursuit of strategic resources. 91 pastoralists    People who use a foodproducing strategy of adaptation based  on care of herds of domesticated animals. 91 peasant    Small-scale agriculturist living in a state, with rent fund  obligations. 97 potlatch    Competitive feast among Indians on the North Pacific Coast  of North America. 100 reciprocity    One of the three principles of exchange. Governs exchange  between social equals; major exchange mode in band and 
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tribal societies. 98 redistribution    Major exchange mode of chiefdoms, many archaic states,  and some states with managed economies. 98 transhumance    One of two variants of pastoralism; part of the population  moves seasonally with the herds while the other part remains  in home villages. 91 CHAPTER 6 achieved  status    Social status that comes through talents, actions, efforts, activities,  and accomplishments, rather than ascription. 114
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Anthro2 Midterm2 Key Terms - CHAPTER 5 agriculture

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