Chapter 7 Attention and Memory Textbook

Chapter 7 Attention and Memory Textbook - V isual At...

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•Visual Attention is Selective and Serial -propose by Anne Treisman= “we automatically identify “primitive” features like color, shape, orientation, and movement whining an environment -Parallel Processing: process information at the same time, and attend selectively to one feature by effectively blockin g the further processing of others -Treisman’s visual search tasks= searching for “targets”; the others are “distracters” -While searching for a single feature (red stimulus) is fast and automatic, two features is seral (look at the stimuli one at a same time) and effortful (take longer and more attention) Ex. Conjunction Task= red colored Xs and Ys • Auditory Attention Allows Elective Listening (Attention is Limited) -easy: listen to music and drive; hard: listen to 2 conversations at one - _4 ·, h – •¸ b -you need to direct your attention to the driving, which acquires additional attention -driving and listening to the radio are dangerous -talking with a passenger in the car is less hazardous than talking on a phone -the person on the phone doesn’t know what is happening -a passenger can signal in many ways to pause as situations demand =hans-free cellpones still have to dived attentional resources among multiple tasks -Cherry’s “Cocktail Party Phenomenon”= focus on a single conversation in the midst of a chaotic party, yet a stimulus can capture ur attention (ex/ hearing ur name in conversation, hearing a gossip) -proximity, loudness, & selective attention influence what you will attend -“shadowing”= some important information gets filtered of attention, but it needs to be personally relevant info or has to be loud or different •Selective Attention Can Operate at Multiple Stages of Processing -Donald Boradbent’s “Filter Theory” = letting in only the most important information; closed gate for irreverent information -Muscle cramp demands your attention; high-pitched ones are harder to ignore -But even when participants cannot repeat an unattended message, they still have processed its contents -“Common Blindness”= the common failure to notice large changes in environment a limted attention, -unable to recall the stranger later because we never encoded his features -“Changed Blindness Blindness”= unawareness that we often do not notice apparently obvious changes in our environments *Which statement correctly describes the 2 stages of attention? -Attention has a rapid process that searches for on e feature and a slower, serial process that searches for multiple features one at a time *What happens to information when we are not paying attention? -Some of the unattended information is passed on for further processing but it is weaker than attended information
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*What Are the Basic Stages of Memory 1. The encoding phase= the processing of info so that it can be stored by changing into a neural code that the brain can use 2. The storage phase= last a fraction of a second or as long as a lifetime; the retention of encoded
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