Lecture 3- Research Methods - 3. Research Methods Getting...

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3. Research Methods Getting Started - Make an observation of behavior, and come up with a theory to explain that behavior - Generate a hypothesis based on that theory - Theory: Alcohol intoxication impairs driving skills (general observation about behavior) - Data: Measure seconds a person can stand on one leg after drinking alcohol - Hypothesis: People who are intoxicated will show less motor coordination -“Good Theory” = generate testable hypotheses ex. Not The Interpretation of Dreams -Serendipitous finding= unexpected finding ex. Torsten Wiesel and David Hubel- cats respond to lines and edges, instead of at dots –from projector jamming -Operations definitions= identify and quantify variables so that they can be measured ex. Rating fun 3 Research Designs 1. Descriptive Designs: Observe behaviors 2. Experimental Designs: Manipulate behaviors 3. Correlational Design: Compare (co-related) Behaviors 1. Descriptive (observational) study- Research method that involves observing, noting, and classifying behavior *Types 1. Naturalistic: Where the observer is apart from and makes no attempt to alter or change the situation - Good: studying without effecting the study 2. Participant: Where the researcher is actively involved in the situation - Good: have control over experiment - Konrad Lorenz’s imprinting: after a short time after birth, geese imprint who their mother is. He wanted to see if it was innate or learned. *3 Decisions 1. Done in the laboratory or in the natural environment? - more control in laboratory - more like reality if in natural environment? 2. How collecting the data?- case studies, surveys, questionnaires 3. Visible Observer? - Reactivity is an effect that occurs when the knowledge that one is being observed alters the behavior being observed - Observer bias : systematic errors in observation that occur due to an observer’s expectations Experimenter Expectancy Effect : actual change in the behavior due to observer bias Ex. Rosenthal’s Study half-told that rats are good at running mazes; learned the task more quickly half-no expectation; slow Ex. - How many people wash hands after using the restroom? - Who washes more dishes, girls or guys? *Longitudinal Studies: developmental design ex. How intellectual abilities change over the adult years *Cross-Sectional studies: comparing different groups to make inferences Ex. Intellectual abilities of young adults vs old adults 2. Correlational Designs (examine how variables are naturally related in the real world without manipulation) - Compare 2 factors or measures, but there is no manipulation of factors Ex. Violent TV vs. aggression, GPA vs. Study time, learning ability vs. brain size, depression vs suicide - Correlation does not equal causation !-directionality problem (you’re not manipulating things so there is no way to know) - Remember, correlation is not an experiment - Often show this kind of data with a scatterplot *Degrees of Correlations - strength of correlations is measured by the r statistic (0 = no correlation, +/-1.0 perfect correlation)
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Lecture 3- Research Methods - 3. Research Methods Getting...

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