Lecture 5- Biological Foundations

Lecture 5- Biological Foundations -...

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Lecture 5: Biological Foundations POP QUIZ 1. If you believe the mind and the brain to be separate, but somehow interact with each other, u would be considered a----dualist a. Dualist b. Materialist c. Monist d. separatist 2. To ensure that there are not any demand characteristics (participant feelings), a scientist would most likely employ a ------ study design.----c. single blind a. Randomly assigned b. Correlational c. Single blind d. Valid e. Repeartable •Genetics -We know that physical characteristics such as height, hair color, blood type, and eye color are largely shaped by genetics. What about PSYCHOLOGICAL traits like introversion, moodiness, shyness, goodness, badness? •Key Themes and Terms  a. Nature versus Nurture- cannot be separated genetic makeup vs environment  b. Chromosomes(46 of them) -threadlike strands of DNA that carry information -carry multiple genes -humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes •From Genes to Behavior a. Genes -segments of nucleic acids on DNA -codes for production of all proteins -gene activation (from stress, etc)- protein synthesis b. Protein Synthesis -production of all organic matter -~70 000 different proteins in humans c. Physiological systems -Organization of proteins (heart, muscle, brain, etc) d. Environmental Factors -Internal: chemical context -External: social influence *Gene Activation   Protein Synthesis   Physiological Systems   Behavior •Dominant and Recessive
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-Having two recessive genes for a particular trait means that the recessive trait will be  expressed. -All other combination results in having the dominant trait will be expressed •Genotype- internally coded genetic information •Phenotype-outward, physical manifestation of the organism ex. height, weight, hair  color •You can have the same phenotype but different genotype Ex. Autosomal dominant-Huntington’s disease • Nature- Tryon’s Selective Breeding Experiment -rat bred on maze performance (bright vs dull)---o2 production---selectively reprodce -rats cross-fostered to control for environment by 3rd and 7th –bright-10errors, dull- 70errors -seven generations of breeding -Polygenic effect       -Specific to task, not related to general learning ability -intelligence is heritable •Testing Nature/Nurture -Identical twins have 100% genetic overlap Monozygotic-singe egg splits into two siblings split into two zygotes -Fraternal twins have 50% genetic overlap Dizygotic-two separate eggs results in two siblings -two separate eggs • Nurture- Twin Studies-  -correlations of IQs between individuals -parents influence the intelligence    Adopted unrelated sibling- environment, Score 1 for nurture    Identical twins reared together-same IQ
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-Intelligence and the personality of being extraverted have been linked to genetics  -correlations for these traits were higher for identical twins than fraternal twins
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Lecture 5- Biological Foundations -...

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