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Lecture 6 Sensation 2

Lecture 6 Sensation 2 - Lecture6.Sensations Sensory Systems...

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Lecture 6. Sensations •Sensory Systems 1. Taste (gustatory system) 2. Smell (olfactory system) 3. Hearing (auditory system) 4. Sense of Sight (visual system) 5. Touch (somatosensory system) 6. Sense of body position (kinesthesia) 7. Sense of balance (vestibular system) •What is the difference between sensation and perception? -Sensation: - how the receptors in our body transduce physical energy into neural energy (I.e. detection of external stimulus energy) -The sense organs’ responses to external stimuli and the transmission of the responses to the brain -Perception: - our experience of the world that is supported by the brain’s further processing of sensory signals -construction of meaningful info based on prior experiences, and shaped-up expectations -further processing of detected, sensory signals that result in an internal representation of the stimulus Neurons and sensory receptors communicate between them; different combinations, different rates Ex. Stimulus- a green light emits photons Sensation-eyes detect the stimulus Sensory Coding (translation of stimuli’s physical properties into neural impulses)- transduced (translated into chemical and electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain) Perception-process the neural signals: interpret a sign to continue driving transduction : the process by which sensory receptors transform physical energy (e.g. pressure, gravity, light) into electrical energy; produce neural impulses when they receive physical or chemical stimulation -first goes through the thalamus→cortex (interpreted as sight, smell, sound, tough or taste) Sense Stimuli Receptors Pathway to the Brain Taste Molecules dissolved in fluid on the tongue Taste cells in taste buds on the tongue Portions of facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves
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Smell Molecules dissolved in Fluid on mucous membranes in the nose sensitive ends of olfactory neurons in the mucous membranes Olfactory nerve Touch Pressure on the skin Sensitive ends of touch neurons in skin Trigeminal nerve for touch above the neck, spinal nerves for touch elsewhere Hearing Sound waves Pressure-sensitive hair cells in cochlea of inner ear Auditory nerve Vision Light waves Light-sensitive rods and cones in retina of eye Optic nerve TO function efficiently, brains need: Qualitavtive info: the differences between sounds and tastes; different sensory receptors respond to qualitatively different stimuli Quantative: coded by the speed of a particular neuron’s firing; more rapidly firing neuron= respond at a higher frequency (brighter light, a louder sound, heavier weight) Coasrse coding- coded by only a few different types of receptors; to a braod range of stimuli •Threshold: Psychophysics (a subfield that examines psychological experiences of physical stimuli) 1. Absolute: the minimum intensity of stimulation that must occur before experiencing a sensation 2. Difference: the just noticeable difference between two stimuli- the minimum amount of change
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Lecture 6 Sensation 2 - Lecture6.Sensations Sensory Systems...

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