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Lecture 8-Learning

Lecture 8-Learning - Lecture 8 Lea rning St imulus s...

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Thoughts Response Stimulus Lecture 8. Learning • Potato-washing monkeys -In 1953: Japanese researcher observed a young macaque on the island of Koshima washing a sweet potato in a stream before eating it. No one had ever seen a macaque do this before. Soon other members of the monkey’s troop were showing the same behavior. Several generations later, macaques on Koshima still wash their potatoes before eating them. • Superstitious baseball player—even though he was Jewish -In 2005, Wade Boggs was elected to the baseball’s Hall of Fame. Boggs was a renowned for his superstitions as he was for his great hitting. For 20 years Boggs ate chicken every day of the year. Before games he followed a rigorous set of rituals that included stepping on the bases in reverse order, running wind sprints at 17 min past the hour, and tossing exactly 3 pebbles off the field. Every time he stepped up to hit during a game, he drew the Hebrew letter Chai in the dirt with his bat. For Boggs, the slightest deviations in this routine were profoundly upsetting. •Door-opening swallows -Barn swallows in Minnesota have built nests inside a Home Depot warehouse store, safe from the weather and from predators. So how do they get in and out to bring food to their babies when the doors are closed? They flutter around the motion sensors that operate the door until they open. • Fear of clowns - A firefighter in Georgia routinely braves life-threatening situations to rescue people in distress. Yet the firefighter is paralyzed with fear whenever he sees someone dressed as a clown. He has been terrified of clowns ever since the third grade • What do these have in common?----examples of learning/ not preprogrammed but acquired over time 1. Potato-washing monkeys 2. Superstitious baseball player 3. Door-opening swallows 4. Fear of clowns -Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience - (can learn without it) Behaviorism -long ago= Introspection and unobservable behavior -NOW: focuses on the relationship between the environment and observable behavior - thoughts and feelings are omitted because they do not exist - The only thing that matters is behavior - Conditioning is preferred over learning because learning implies “thinking”   Classical Conditioning - Emphasize the association between stimulus and response - Learn to associate one stimulus with another
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- Classical conditioning is the pairing of a naturally occurring reflex to a naturally occurring reflex to a neutral stimulus • Ivan Pavlov- physiologist -Studying the digestive system in dogs -Dogs ruined the experiment by salivating before the food was presented -He decided to study this anticipation • Unconditioned stimulus (US) condition=relies on it ex. Meat powder—salivation reflex -Stimulus that procures a response without learning • Unconditioned response (UR) ex. Salivation; Drooling to the food -response that occurs to a stimulus without learning • Conditioned stimulus (CS) -stimulus that produces a response through learning
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