Lecture 9-Attention and Memory

Lecture 9-Attention and Memory - Shor t-t er m St ore I...

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Unformatted text preview: Shor t-t er m St ore I nput Output Long-t er m St ore Working Memor y (Shor t-t er m Memor y) Long-t er m Memor y (LTM) verbal, spatial, semantic, episodic, skills, priming Stimulus I nputs Response Outputs Retr ieval Stor age Att ention Expectation Lear n Study faces made from I denti-Kits Misleading I nfor mation Subjects read a repor t in which a witness says t e assailant had curly hair. Retreive 30% include curly hair Only 5% in Control Gr p Lecture 9. Attention and Memory Attention Short-term memory Long-term memory Forgetting Jennifer Thompson, Ronald Cotton-When in college, man broke into her apartment and raped her. She was 100% sure that Ronald was the one, Held another t rial- although they actually brought the real criminal, she still insisted. DNA- Ronald Cotton was innocent. -memory is extremely fallible. Information Processing Model 1. Inputs (mouse, keyboard) 2. Short term (RAM)/ long term store (hard drive) 3. Output (printer, monitor) Standard Model- Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) Sensory Memoryany current working of any senses * Iconic memory (ZAPS-row partial)can we recall-Visual-Less than a second (1/4 second): ex. Camera flash-st-become blind to the world-Brief persistence of sensory information-Sperling task (partial report)X3-the longer the interval, the worse we do *Echoic Memory (last about 2-3 seconds)-Auditory-Only a couple of seconds-Replay Effect: while watching tv, parents asking, a couple seconds to decide whether we will respond; at school, * ` + < _+ . Even though I wasnt paying attention-Dichotic Listening Task: ignored or attended; listen different sounds from headphones Shadow what the two peoples reading; if you signal unattended earnot totally oblivious, if given time to capture it, its possible to remember. *Subjects are not aware of-Content (same word repeated 30 times)-Syntax (sentences vs random words)-Language (shifts in language of speaker) *Subjects are aware of-Nonspeech sounds (clicks, buzzers)-Sex of speaker (Shifts in voice) Sensory to Short-term Memory (require attention) *Getting information from sensory memory to short-term memory requires-Selective attention-We attend to the senses we feel are important to us-There is a limited capacity-What does a penny look like?we only remember the size and color to distinguish from other coins-Attention involves selecting some inputs, and disregarding others Theories of Attention-Perceptual analysis of unattended information is reduced, but not totally lost!-Cocktail party effect! 1. Early Selection Model- lots of information 2. Filter or Bottelneck Model- attend to some parts; cocktail-Prefrontal cortex is involved in attention- controlling and guiding perceptual analysis 1. Bottom-up Processing-from sensory input to thoughts/ knowledge-knowledge builds on inputs 2. Top-down processing-thoughts affect perceptions-Expectations/ anticipations Ex. Paris in the the spring= paris in the springEx....
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Lecture 9-Attention and Memory - Shor t-t er m St ore I...

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