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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 10. Thinking and I ntelligence Thinking-Power thoughts Judgment and Decision Making I ntelligence using information; adaptive; unconscious cognitive processes thought, behavior, decision making, and problem solving Language-9/11 can result in fears called Dread Risks, which can profoundly affect reasoning and decision making less people took airplanes-the brain represents information and the act of thinking; Cognition mental activity such as thinking or representing information How does our mind represent information?-representations take on picture-like qualities 1. Metal images= analogical representation: has some of the physical characteristics of an object Ex. Recognizing a dog; maps, geographical layouts, family trees-Analogical=R studies the time a participant took to determine whether an object was in its normal orientation or was a mirror image; the farther an object was from upright, the longer the task took cuz the representation needed to be rotated more-not perfectly accurate- corresponds generally to the physical object it represents-has a limitation ex. conceptual Mental Maps -California is farther west; San Diego is not west of Reno; I didnt take into account the way northern Nevada juts west and southern California juts west-the irregular shapes in memory a shortcut we use unconsciously errors 2. Concepts= Symbolic representation: an abstract mental representation that does not correspond to the physical features of an object or idea Ex. Chinese letter; the word violin stands for a musical instrument -Categorization--> group into categories according to the objects shared properties-Concept= a mental representation that groups objects, events, or relations around common themes-Defining attribute model= a concept is characterized by a list of features that are necessary to determine if an object is a member of a category Ex. -has wings (clear attribute of birds); flymust be birds (but some birds dot fly its not always all- or-none basis)-warm-blooded (nnot salient in how we think about birds)-no one item is a better fit than any other-Prototype model: think of the best example of category. Some representatives of a class or more prototypical of a category than othersthe most typical ex. Brown dog; h * &#0; recognized as a dog-Exemplar model: (combination of typical attributes; information stored about the members (exemplars) of a category is used to determine category membership)-when you see a dog, you compare it to all other dogs that you have seen. Each dog serves as an exemplar. Ex. Schemas organize useful information about environments (scripts , gender roles) supposed to adaptively minimize the amounts of attention required to navigate familiar environments-Scripts- (advantage) provide quick and almost effortless guides to behavior in different situations...
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- Fall '04