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Unformatted text preview: Order of Pr ior ity Lecture 11. Motivation Ex .Elliot= no longer experience emotion after removing the tumor and its surrounding frontal lobe tissue lost job, divorce and remarried, so on Needs Theories of motivation Other motivating factors Motivation= factors that energize, direct, or sustain behavior-Motivation is derived from Latin, to move The factors that influence the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of behavior (Reeve, 1996) Intervening variable: A variable that comes between a specific environmental circumstance and a behavioral response What causes to act this way; stimulus and response Sources of Motivation (Needs)-Needs: deficiency in our life that we want fulfilled; state of biological or social deficiencies-what do you think some of our needs are?-Need Hierachy= Maslows arrangement of needs, in which basic survival needs are lowest priority and personal growth needs are highest priority Marlow is a humanistic psychologists, viewing people as striving toward personal fulfillment 1. Self-actualization (living to full potential, achieving personal dreams and aspirations) 2. Esteem (Good self opinion) 3. Belonging and love (acceptance) 4. Safety (security, protection, freedom from threats) 5. Physiological (hunger, thirst, warmth, air, sleep) Ex. Food, air, shelter, clothing, companionship, recreation, friendship, self-fulfillment, sleep 1. Biological 2. Emotional 3. Cognitive 4. Social 5. Other sources? Biological Needs-Hunger and thirst needs-Safe and secure especially as infants-Need to reproduce-Simplest, most basic, common across species-However, doesnt seem to explain the full richness of behavior exhibited by humans-In other words, people are motivated by more than food, safety, and sex Emotional and Social Needs-Over time, we have a need to belong to a group or to someone who will love us an accept us-We also want to have self-esteem through others approval and recognition Cognitive Needs *Self-actualization = A need to fulfill our unique potential as a person- Is there a purpose or meaning in our life besides living for yourself?- What kind of legacy will you leave to people when you pass on?- How will people remember you? Maslows Hierarchy of needs (need vs want)-have to have all of these, to have next needs-focus on individualism/ train yourself first-doesnt necessarily follow the order ex. College studying Theories of Motivation-Drive Reduction Theory= we have a need; that creates a drive; that causes a drive-drive= psychological state that motivates an organism to satisfy its needs Ex. Nutrition= hungry= force us to eat Sleep= tiredness= force us to sleep Cannons homeostasis= retain homeostasis at a set-point-Arousal Theory-Incentive Theory (Incentives= EXTERNAL stimuli as opposed to the internal drives) Our needs drive or motivate our behavior (Clark Hull)...
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- Fall '04