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Unformatted text preview: get’s gnitive Development Stages Formal Operational olescence- adulthood) Concrete Operational 11 yrs) 1. Sensorimotor (0-2 yrs) 2. Preoperational (2-7 yrs) Lecture 16. Development *Infants and Blank Slate-Philosophers and others believed that infants were born into the world with a blank slate -In other words, they entered the world without any knowledge or skill-Today, we know that infants come into the world knowing quite a lot and with a set of useful reflexes that can help them survive *Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development 1. Germinal stage = first 2 weeks =Conception, implantation, formation of placenta 2. Embryonic stage = 2 weeks –2 months  =Formation of vital organs and systems 3. Fetal stage = 2 months –birth  =Bodily growth continues, movement capability begins, brain cells multiply *Teratogens-Chemicals or agents that are to pass through the placenta and harm the embryo or fetus Ex. Worried about the effect on her unborn child from the sound of jackhammer *Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development 1. Maternal nutrition @- Malnutrition linked to increased risk of birth complications, neurological problems, and psychopathology 2. Maternal drug use -teratogens- Tobacco, alcohol, prescription, and recreational drugs, opiates ( withdrawal system)- Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) 3. Maternal illness- Rubella, syphilis, mumps, genital herpes, AIDS, severe influenza- Prenatal health care- Prevention through guidance *Childhood: Motor Development *Basic Principles 1. Cephalocaudaltrend –head to foot (motor control first to down) 2. Proximodistaltrend –center to outward (head, ) *Maturation –gradual unfolding of genetic blueprint *Developmental norms –median age-Cultural variations *Adolescence: Neural Changes-Increasing myelinization-Synaptic pruning (amount of synapse increase depending on the brain region, age 1-3) Ex. Like cutting off/ trimming the trees-> remove the unnecessary things-Changes in prefrontal cortex (highest level of reasoning ) *Motor Development *Reflexes-Inborn, automatic responses to environmental stimuli-These reflexes promote survival-Remember, infants are born with these reflexes which suggests that they are not born with a blank slate *Important Reflexes to Know *Doctors will often test how healthy the baby is by seeing if they are able to show these different reflexes-Rooting touching the check suck the finger/ breast-Sucking-Sucking-Grasping giving pressure on the hands-Moro fling out the arms and legs-Babinski having a lot with walking; curl the feet-swallowing- giving liquid on the lips-stepping -evolutionary cling to mom-should disappear later on-breathing, eye blinking Reflex What is it Purpose Rooting Touching on the check will cause the baby to turn his or her head to the side of the cheek that...
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This note was uploaded on 10/28/2010 for the course PSYCH 2 taught by Professor Don'tremember during the Fall '04 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Fall '04