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Lecture 16 Development

Lecture 16 Development - ormalOperational ets...

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get’s  gnitive Development Stages Formal Operational olescence- adulthood) Concrete Operational 11 yrs) 1. Sensorimotor (0-2 yrs) 2. Preoperational (2-7 yrs) Lecture 16. Development *Infants and Blank Slate -Philosophers and others believed that infants were born into the world with a blank slate -In other words, they entered the world without any knowledge or skill -Today, we know that infants come into the world knowing quite a lot and with a set of useful reflexes that can help them survive *Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development 1. Germinal stage = first 2 weeks =Conception, implantation, formation of  placenta 2. Embryonic stage = 2 weeks –2 months =Formation of vital organs and systems 3. Fetal stage = 2 months –birth =Bodily growth continues, movement capability begins, brain cells multiply *Teratogens -Chemicals or agents that are to pass through the placenta and harm the  embryo or fetus Ex.   Worried   about   the   effect   on   her   unborn   child   from   the   sound   of  jackhammer *Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development 1.  Maternal nutrition @ - Malnutrition linked to increased risk of birth complications, neurological problems, and psychopathology 2. Maternal drug use -teratogens - Tobacco, alcohol, prescription, and recreational drugs, opiates ( withdrawal system) - Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) 3. Maternal illness - Rubella, syphilis, mumps, genital herpes, AIDS, severe influenza - Prenatal health care - Prevention through guidance *Childhood: Motor Development *Basic Principles 1. Cephalocaudaltrend –head to foot (motor control first to down) 2. Proximodistaltrend –center to outward (head, ) *Maturation –gradual unfolding of genetic blueprint *Developmental norms –median age -Cultural variations *Adolescence: Neural Changes -Increasing myelinization -Synaptic pruning (amount of synapse increase depending on the brain region, age 1-3) Ex. Like cutting off/ trimming the trees-> remove the unnecessary things -Changes in prefrontal cortex (highest level of reasoning ) *Motor Development *Reflexes -Inborn, automatic responses to environmental stimuli -These reflexes promote survival -Remember, infants are born with these reflexes which suggests that they are not born with a blank slate *Important Reflexes to Know *Doctors will often test how healthy the baby is by seeing if they are able to show these  different reflexes -Rooting  touching the check  suck the finger/ breast -Sucking
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-Sucking -Grasping  giving pressure on the hands -Moro  fling out the arms and legs -Babinski  having a lot with walking; curl the feet -swallowing- giving liquid on the lips -stepping  -evolutionary  cling to mom -should disappear later on -breathing, eye blinking Reflex What is it Purpose Rooting Touching on the check will cause the baby to  turn his or her head to the side of the cheek that  was touched Helps babies know 
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