Chapter 8 Note (Alcohol) - Chapter 8. Alcohol *Production...

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Chapter 8. Alcohol *Production of Alcohol: Fermentation by Yeast Anaerobic conditions CO 2 Glucose Pyruvate Ethanol Maltose -hundreds of type of alcohol= from different glucose (out of wheat=glucose Out of grape= sucrose)
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-dashed line= very little energy producing; little reaction to get energy from alchol because we are generating lots of electron; metabolism of alchol inhibits the citric acid cycle so it is mostly stored as fat -MEMOS= lots of alcohol consumption; need to be detoxified; normal drug detoxification system; can’t use it for other toxins *Absorption of Alcohol not regulate -Stomach -digestion: not required -absorption: EASY: simple diffusion through cell membranes; lowever in mall fats; drinking diluted alchoholl food protects the stmomach and slows the absoprtion -Intestine -absorption: EASY: simple diffusion through cell membranes -Portal vein to Liver 1. Alcohol Dehydrogenase Ethanol Acetaldehyde Depend on: 1. Gender, genetics (Asians have lesser alchohol metabolism) 2. Body size, % lean body mass 3. Food in stomach 4. Amount of alcohol 5. Physical condition: Fasting 2. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Acetaldehyde Acetyl CoA Acetaldehyde very TOXIC 1. Carcinogenic 2. Some people lack this enzyme: results in nausea, flushing 3. Antabuse inhibits enzyme
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*Huge Dose of Alcohol 1. Swamps metabolic pathways-- blocks production of glucose (brain) 2. Hypoglycemia 3. Depresses central nervous system 4. Coma 5. Death -Usually person passes out before lethal dose, but can be lethal by drinking very quickly *Liver Damage by Alcohol 1. Increased fatty acid synthesis 2. Alcohol preferentially metabolized 3. Accumulation of acetaldehyde toxic; free-radicals 4. Liver clogged with Fat then doesn’t make bile; don’t generate glucose no glucose- making enzymes vitamin levels (even giving vitamins to the alcoholics can’t metabolize or break them) 5. How does the liver get rid of fat?--> high triglycerides= LDL= cardiovascular disease 6. Cirrhosis Decreased oxygen level; livers clogged with fat die due to lack of oxygen= cirrhosis having scarred tissues in liver; hard and lumpy *Alcoholic - Distorted Self-Image = thinks he looks and normal -Protruding Abdomen = scarred liver, edema -Thin Arms and Legs – nutrient absoprtion is negative; lack of glucose breaking down the proteins; vitamin C metabloism is off -Bulbous enlarged nose -Sallow or jaundiced skin with dilated capillaries, spider anigiomas, scabbing, crusting papoles, postules -Hoarse voice -Increased perspiration -Fiary red palms -Pubic hair thinned or lost -shrunken testicles -Hemorrhoids -Multiple bruises -Swollen ankles -Unsteady walk with broad-based gait *Effects on Vitamin Metabolism -Interferes with absorption: Folate deficiency due to mucosa damage, more excreted Vitamin C : altered liver metabolism
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Vitamin A : (needs to be metabolized by liver)inability of liver to make carrier protein, increased degradation, impaired conversion of -carotene to retinoids
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Chapter 8 Note (Alcohol) - Chapter 8. Alcohol *Production...

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