Chapter 4 Note

Chapter 4 Note - Acting on Total Chapter 4. Carbohydrate...

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Total Fiber Acting on glucose transporter Chapter 4. Carbohydrate 4.1 Carbohydrates in the Modern Diet - Refined : remove the other essential nutrients and food components present in the whole food; changed from original state -bran & germ gone, no fiber (need 25-38g daily), last longer -Whole Grain: The entire kernel of grain including the bran layers, the germ, and the endosperm. 1. Bran-outer layer; fiber, good source of vitamins 2. Germ- oil, vitamin E, protein, fiber, the B vitamins riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin B6 3. Endosperm- mostly starch - Enriched Grain: Grains to which specific amounts of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and iron have been added; no vitamin E, magnesium, vitamin B6 lost from milling -Added Sugars : Sugars and syrups that have been added to foods during processing or preparation; make up 16% of diet - Empty Calories : foods that contribute energy but few other nutrients 2. Simple and Complex Carbohyrate *Simple Sugars - white sugar: sucrose -brown sugar: white sugar with molasses -molasses: first extraction from sugar can or beets -honey: sucrose and fructose ( sweeter than glucose ) -glucose: blood sugar -food sweeteners: sucrose -high fructose corn syrup: glucose & fructose -corn syrup, corn sweeteners -invert sugar, dextrose, turbinado, etc. *Fructose -no cause as great a rise as glucose -increase in blood lipids -way cheaper, easier to transport, liquid- more soluble *High Fructose Corn Syrup 1. steeping corn to soften hard kernel 2. separation into: starch, corn hull, protein, oil 3. breakdown of starch into glucose 4. use of enzymes to covert glucose to fructose 5. blending of glucose and fructose= HFCS-55 (55% fructose) in soft drinks =HFCS-42 in canned fruit, condiments, baking, flavored milk, yogurt, ice cream, frozen dessert - Transit Time : time takes for food to pass the GI tract; 24-72 hours *Complex Carbohydrates 1. Oligosaccharides- 3 to 10 monosaccharides -often broken down by intestinal microflora -in human milk, beans, legumes, onions, bananas, garlic 2. Polysaccharides
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This note was uploaded on 10/28/2010 for the course NST 114 taught by Professor Cassida during the Fall '10 term at Berkeley.

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Chapter 4 Note - Acting on Total Chapter 4. Carbohydrate...

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