Chapter 3 Summary & Key Terms

Chapter 3 Summary & Key Terms - Summary 3.1....

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S u m m a r y
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3.1. Food Becomes Us 3.2. An Overview of the Digestive System 3.3. Digestion and Absorption 3.4. Digestion and Health 3.5. Transporting Nutrients to Body Cells
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3.6. Metabolism of Nutrients: An Overview 3.7. Elimination of Metabolic Wastes K e y T e r m s absorption The process of taking substances into the interior of the body acetyl CoA A metabolic intermediate formed during the breakdown of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids. It is a 2-carbon compound attached to a molecule of CoA. active transport The transport of substances across a cell membrane with the aid of a carrier molecule and the expenditure of energy. This may occur against a concentration gradient. ATP (adenosine triphosphate The high-energy molecule used by the body to perform energy-requiring activities. allergen A substance that causes an allergic reaction. anabolic Energy-requiring processes in which simpler molecules are combined to form more complex substances. antibodies Proteins produced by cells of the immune system that destroy or inactivate foreign substances in the body. antigen A foreign substance (almost always a protein) that, when introduced into the body, stimulates an immune response. anus The outlet of the rectum through which feces are expelled. arteries Vessels that carry blood away from the heart. atoms The smallest units of an element that still retain the properties of that element. atrophic gastritis An inflammation of the stomach lining that causes a reduction in stomach acid and allows bacterial overgrowth.
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bile A substance made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It is released into the small intestine to aid in fat digestion and absorption. capillaries Small, thin-walled blood vessels where the exchange of gases and nutrients between blood and cells occurs. catabolic The processes by which substances are broken down into simpler molecules releasing energy. cell   membrane The membrane that surrounds the cell contents. cells The basic structural and functional units of plant and animal life. cellular respiration The reactions that break down glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy in the form of ATP. chemical
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This note was uploaded on 10/28/2010 for the course NST 114 taught by Professor Cassida during the Fall '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Chapter 3 Summary & Key Terms - Summary 3.1....

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