Chapter 3 Note - Chapter 3. Digestion and Absorption...

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Chapter 3. Digestion and Absorption -Appetite : psychological desire to eat specific foods that arises from environmental stimuli -Hunger: physiological process that prompts us to find and eat food that arises from internal stimuli -Digestion : breaking food into components small enough to be absorbed into the body -Absorption : the proves of taking substances into the interior of the body 1. Food Becomes Us - Atoms: the smallest units of an element that still retain the properties of that element -Elements : Substances that cannot be broken down into products with different properties. -Molecules : Units of two or more atoms of the same or different elements chemically bonded together - Cells : The smallest unit in living systems - Tissue : cells of similar structure and function (stomach has all the four) Muscle Nerve Epithelial Connective - Organ : discrete structure of more than one tissue; perform a specialized function -Organ System: a group of cooperative organs Organ System What It Includes What It Does Nervous Brain, spinal cord, and associated nerves Responds to stimuli from the external and internal environments; conducts impulses to activate muscles and glands; integrates activities of other systems. Respiratory Lungs, trachea, and air passageways Supplies the blood with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. Urinary Kidneys and their associated structures Eliminates wastes and regulates the balance of water, electrolytes, and acid in the blood. Reproductive Testes, ovaries, and their associated structures Produces offspring Cardiovascular Heart and blood vessels Transports blood, which carries oxygen, nutrients, and wastes. Lymphatic/Immun e Lymph and lymph structures, white blood cells Defends against foreign invaders, picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels, transports fat-soluble nutrients. Muscular Skeletal muscles Provides movement and structure. Skeletal Bones and joints Protects and supports the body, provides a framework for the muscles to use for movement. Endocrine Pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, pancreas, and other ductless glands Secretes hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use. Integumentary Skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands Covers and protects the body; helps control body temperature. Digestive Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder Ingests and digests food, absorbs nutrients into the blood, eliminates unabsorbed food residues liver, and gallbladder and other wastes. 2. Overview of Digestive System - Gastrointestinal tract (GI Tract) : a 30 feet hollow tube from mouth to anus
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- lumen: inside of the tube Mouth – Chews food and mixes it with saliva. Salivary glands
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Chapter 3 Note - Chapter 3. Digestion and Absorption...

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