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LifeTaxon2008 - Characteristics of Characteristics Living...

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Unformatted text preview: Characteristics of Characteristics Living Things Living 1. Made of Cells unicellular vs.. multicellular Characteristics of Living Characteristics Things Things Red Blood cells Onion skin epidermal cells Human cheek cells Are made up of cells Unicellular – organisms that are made of only one cell Multicellular – organisms that are made of more than one cell Colonial – unicellular organisms that live in a group Characteristics of Living Things 2. Grows and develops Increase in cell size and/or number Includes: development, aging, death Differentiation – cell specialization for a certain job Growth, Development and Aging Growth – some cells get larger and other new cells are added Development – cells and body parts become specialized for certain jobs Aging – cells and body parts become damaged and cannot be repaired Characteristics of Living Things 3. Obtains & uses Energy ) Metabolism (sum of all chemical reactions) Anabolism­ simple to complex (build –up rxns.) ­ process of making complex substances from simpler substances Catabolism – complex to simple (break­down rxns.) – breaking down complex substances into simpler substances Autotroph – organism that can make its own food from it’s environment (self­feeding) Heterotroph – organism that has to obtain its energy from another organism (other feeding) Characteristics of Living Things 4. Reproduces two kinds of reproduction: ­ asexual – takes one to make more ­ sexual – takes two Reproduce to produce new organisms Sexual reproduction – two cells from different individuals combine to form the first cells of a new organism Asexual reproduction – all or part of the organism is used to make a new organism Characteristics of Living Things 5. Responds to the Environment a. Movement – internal or external b. Irritability ­ ability to respond to a stimulus Examples of stimuli : sight, sound, touch, pressure, temperature, chemicals, color, light, other? c. Adaptability Respond to the Environment Stimulus – anything in the environment that causes a reaction from an organism Reflex – automatic response to a stimulus Behavior – learned or inherited response to a stimulus When your When body gets too body warm due to activity or stress, activity you will sweat to cool it down. Taxonomy A. Definition = science of naming things & assigning them to groups Taxonomy B. Why have a classification system? 1. Single, universal name 2. Avoid confusion 3. Understand how living things are related to one another Taxonomy What are the FIVE common names of this animal? Taxonomy 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mountain Lion Cougar Puma (Florida) Panther Catamount Rocky Mountain resident Florida resident Taxonomy ¿Wouldn’t it be confusing if we didn’t have a scientific name? Felis concolor = scientific name of the mountain lion Genus species Taxonomy C. Examples of classification systems: 1. Dewey decimal system – library 2. Sections of store – music store 3. Periodic Table of elements ­ Chemistry 4. Others? Taxonomy D. Binomial nomenclature 1. System of scientific naming 2. Developed by Carolus Linnaeus (Swedish botanist) in 1750s 1. Two part scientific name Genus and species 1. 2. Must be underlined or in italics In Latin (dead language of scholars) Taxonomy E. Example : Homo sapiens (wise man) 1. Scientific name for human beings 2. Homo = genus (capitalized & underlined) 3. sapiens = species (underlined, but NOT capitalized) Taxonomy F. Definition of species = 1. breed successfully viable, fertile offspring 2. unique features similar to others of same species 3. have similar DNA to other species members Taxonomy G. 7 Taxa of living things ( taxon = group) Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species (kings) (play) (chess) (on) (fine) (green) (silk) Taxonomy H. Kingdom is least specific, largest group I. Species is most specific, contains only one kind of organism Taxonomy J. An example: Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Hominidae Genus Homo Species sapiens K. Other Systems of Classification 1. Cladograms K. Other Systems of Classification 2. Three Domain System Taxonomy L. ¿ What determines how something is classified? 1. DNA 2. Structure Taxonomy 3. Embryology & development Taxonomy L. ☺There are 6 kingdoms of living things 1. Archaebacteria 2. Eubacteria 3. Protista 4. Fungi 5. Plantae 6. Animalia Taxonomy M. Definitions Prokaryotic = does not have a nucleus to contain its DNA Eukaryotic – has a membrane–bound nucleus Taxonomy N. Unicellular Prokaryotic 1. Archaebacteria –ancient bacteria 2. Eubacteria – most bacteria Eukaryotic 3. Protista – single­celled O. Multicellular 4. Fungi – e.g. mushrooms 5. Plantae ­ plants 6. Animalia ­ animals ...
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