reference32 - J. Electrochem. Soc., Vol. 139, No. 9,...

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J. Electrochem. Soc., Vol. 139, No. 9, September 1992 The Electrochemical Society, Inc. 2477 7. S. Murarka, D. Fraser, A. Sinha, and H. Levinstein, IEEE Solid-State Circuits, SC-15, 474 (1980). 8. S. Murarka, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 4, 1325 (1986). 9. E. Nagasawa, H. Okabayashi, and Y. Iida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 26, 434 (1987). 10. A. Zambova and I. Nedev, Vacuum TAIP, Accepted for publication. 11. N. Ahmetov, Inorganic Chemistry, Chap. 6, Visshaya Shkola. Moscow (1988). 12. H. Remy, Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Band II, Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Geest & Portig K.-G, Leipzig (1961). 13. N. Glinka, Chemistry, pp. 337,388, 638-640, Chemistry Press, Leningrad (1983). 14. A. Wells, Structural Inorganic Chemistry, Chap. 11.5, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1986). 15. L. Genov and M. Maneva-Petrova, Inorganic Chem- istry, Vol. II, Chap. 26, Nauka i Iskustvo, Sofia (1990). 16. F. Cotton and G. Wilkinson, Advanced Inorganic Chap. 30.B, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York (1969). 17. Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemical Analysis, Vol. 16, pp. 177-184, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York (1972). 18. Physical Chemistry, B. Nikolski, Editor, Chap. 7, Chemistry Press, Leningrad (1987). 19. D. Frank-Kamenetskyi, Diffvusion and Heat Transport in Chemical Kinetics, Chap. 2, Nauka, Moscow (1967). 20. A. Rozovskyi, Heterogeneous Chemical Reactions, Chap. 1.3, Nauka, Moscow (1980). 21. S. Walas, Reaction Kinetics for Chemical Engineers, Chap. 8, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York (1959). 22. K. Laidler, Chemical Kinetics, Chap. 6, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York (1965). 23. Vol. II, S. tIristov, Editor, Chap. 3, HICT, Sofia (1981). 24. G. Peev, L. Zambov, and Y. Yanakiev, Thin Solid Films, 189, 275 (1990). 25. G. Forsythe, M. Malcolm, and C. Moler, Computer Methods for Mathematical Computations, Prentice- Hall~ Englewood Cliffs, NJ (:[977). 26. I. Vutchkov and S. Stoyanov, Mathematical Modeling and Optimization of Technological Objects, Chap. 4.3, Technica, Sofia (1980). 27. K. Pavlov, P. Romankov, and A. Moscov, Examples and Problems on Processes and Instruments in Chemical Industry, p. 120, Technica, Sofia (1983). A Mathematical Model of the Solid-Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell Dawn M. Bernardi* and Mark W. Verbrugge* General Motors Research and Environmental Staff, Physical Chemistry Department, Warren, Michigan 48090-9055 ABSTRACTS We present a mathematical model of the solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell and apply it to (i) investigate factors that limit cell performance and (it) elucidate the mechanism of species transport in the complex network of gas, liquid, and solid phases of the cell. Calculations of cell polarization behavior compare favorably with existing experimental data. For most practical electrode thicknesses, model results indicate that the volume fraction of the cathode available for gas transport must exceed 20% in order to avoid unacceptably tow cell-limiting current densities. It is shown that membrane dehydration can also pose limitations on operating current density; circumvention of this problem by appropriate membrane and electrode design and efficient water-man- agement schemes is discussed. Our model results indicate that for a broad range of practical current densities there are no external water requirements because the water produced at the cathode is enough to satisfy the water requirement of the membrane.
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reference32 - J. Electrochem. Soc., Vol. 139, No. 9,...

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