123 - Modeling Transport in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells...

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Unformatted text preview: Modeling Transport in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells Adam Z. Weber* and John Newman Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1462 Received December 5, 2003 Contents 1. Introduction 4679 2. Overview of Models 4680 2.1. Historical 4681 2.2. Detailed by Affiliation 4682 2.2.1. Springer et al. Model and Derivatives 4682 2.2.2. Bernardi and Verbrugge Model and Derivatives 4683 2.2.3. Computational-Fluid-Dynamics Models 4683 2.2.4. Other Macrohomogeneous Models 4684 3. General Aspects and Equations 4685 3.1. Modeling Methodologies 4685 3.2. General Equations 4685 3.2.1. Thermodynamics 4685 3.2.2. Kinetics 4686 3.2.3. Ohmic Losses 4687 3.2.4. Mass-Transfer Limitations 4687 3.3. Zero-Dimensional Models 4688 4. Fuel-Cell Sandwich Modeling 4689 4.1. Conservation Equations 4689 4.2. Membrane Modeling 4690 4.2.1. Microscopic and Physical Models 4691 4.2.2. Diffusive Models 4692 4.2.3. Hydraulic Models 4694 4.2.4. Hydraulic- Diffusive Models 4694 4.2.5. Combination Models 4695 4.3. Diffusion-Media Modeling 4695 4.3.1. Gas-Phase Transport 4696 4.3.2. Treatment of Liquid Water 4697 4.4. Catalyst-Layer Modeling 4700 4.4.1. General Governing Equations 4701 4.4.2. Interface Models 4702 4.4.3. Microscopic and Single-Pore Models 4703 4.4.4. Simple Macrohomogeneous Models 4704 4.4.5. Embedded Macrohomogeneous Models 4707 4.4.6. Catalyst-Layer Flooding 4708 4.5. Multilayer Simulations 4709 4.5.1. Numerical Solution and Boundary Conditions 4709 4.5.2. General Multilayer Simulation Results 4710 5. Multidimensional Effects 4711 5.1. Two-Dimensional Models 4711 5.1.1. Along-the-Channel Models 4711 5.1.2. Under-the-Rib Models 4713 5.2. Three-Dimensional Models 4714 6. Other Effects 4715 6.1. Nonisothermal Models 4716 6.2. Transient Models 4719 7. Other Models 4720 8. Summary 4721 9. Acknowledgments 4722 10. Nomenclature 4722 11. References 4723 1. Introduction Fuel cells may become the energy-delivery devices of the 21st century. Although there are many types of fuel cells, polymer-electrolyte fuel cells are receiv- ing the most attention for automotive and small stationary applications. In a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell, hydrogen and oxygen are combined electrochemi- cally to produce water, electricity, and some waste heat. During the operation of a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell, many interrelated and complex phenomena occur. These processes include mass and heat trans- fer, electrochemical reactions, and ionic and elec- tronic transport. Only through fundamental model- ing, based on physical models developed from experi- mental observations, can the processes and operation of a fuel cell be truly understood. This review examines and discusses the various regions in a fuel cell and how they have been modeled....
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This note was uploaded on 10/28/2010 for the course EE 89 taught by Professor Asgarian during the Fall '10 term at Amirkabir University of Technology.

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123 - Modeling Transport in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells...

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